Saturday, August 31, 2019

Agora Company Essay

Bangladesh entered the supermarket era on August 24, 2001 with Rahim afrooz Superstores Ltd. launching Agora, a retail chain superstore in Bangladesh, introducing a new way to shop. The company has already opened four outlets Rifles Square, Gulshan Avenue, Maghbazar and Mirpur Zoo Road in Dhaka and many more are in progress in Chittagong and other cities of the country. The superstores are open from 9 am to 8 pm every day. Rush of customers is experienced in the morning and evening. Most of the employees of Agora are young and well-educated, some with Masters and MBA degrees. Agora superstores are currently focused in food retailing, ranging from a wide variety of fresh vegetable, fruits, meat and fish to grocery, bakery, dairy, personal and household products. Agora provides its customers with guaranteed quality and freshness. It carries more than 30,000 varieties of products and has plans to expand its product portfolio to carry other ranges of consumer products in the coming years . It aims at building a chain of more than 40 superstores by year 2010.Other supermarket brands have since emerged but Agora continues to be the leader and trendsetter. Agora has been the venue of launching of Thai products, which have by now become commonplace. Californian apples were launched here as have been Agora buys products direct from the growers, which benefits the latter as well as the customers. The products are procured under the direct supervision of its officials who maintain strict procurement and marketing standards. Products on the shelves are regularly monitored for expiry dates. Australia‘s red apples, and crystal products from France were unveiled here. Unilever chose to launch L‘Oreal range of cosmetics at Agora superstores. The big-sized ‘Boroi’ so common in the market was launched here. Recently the scientist behind the cultivation of Strawberry in Bangladesh launched the delicious fruit at Agora. Over 8 million have purchased products at Agora since the opening of Agora‘s fist superstore, with 2,000 customers using the Agoras every day on an average. Rifles Square and Gulshan’s upper markets pull more crowd than the other two. Customers prefer using both cash and credit cards. Agora constantly launches attractive promotions like Bazimat, Value Week or Super Value Offer or Diamond Ring Offer. The promoter of the Agora project, Rahim afrooz, is one of the most respected companies in Bangladesh manufacturing and marketing stored power systems for the automotive industry. All of Rahimafrooz‘s activities are in the service sector,  focusing on consumers, an official of Agora‘s operating company Rahim afrooz Superstores Ltd., said. The Agora project was a ground-breaking project that underlines the potential for harnessing the latent market in Bangladesh, said an executive of a leading corporate house adding, they have produced a service offering of inter national standard Agora is the largest retail superstore in Bangladesh. Agora‘s interior is similar to most supermarkets in design and layout due to trends in marketing. It produce tends to be near the entrance of the store. Various kinds of products and services are sold (at least 2500 products and services). Milk, bread, and other essential items are located in the rear and other out of the way places. This is purposely done to ensure maximum time spent in the store, strolling past other items and capitalizing on impulse buying. The front of the store or Front-End is where one might find point of sale machines or cash registers. Agora has plans to implement self-checkout devices in their stores in an attempt to reduce labor costs as well as bringing complete customer satisfaction. Understanding the historical context from which some of today’s organizational structures have developed helps to explain why some structures is the way they are but Agora using a structured which is more horizontally capitalizing on the innovativeness of their employees. Part of the reason, as this section discusses, is that organizational structure of Agora that has a certain inertia —  the idea borrowedfrom physics and chemistry that something in motion tends to continue on that same path.Because of this unique management process they have become the leading superstore in theBangladesh. The managers of Agora have to make decisions as they develop an organizational structure,although they may not be explicitly aware of these decisions. Agora is synonymous with marketat low prices and name brand quality products. The company basis of success and foundationscannot be credited to the current management. Agora formula for success simply put is theirrelationship with customers, employees, and technology that assists in forming relationships withtheir suppliers; places Agora as the top discount retailer, history-development, and Growth SamAgora to become the top discount retailer Competitive Advantage of Agora: Agora marks a turning point in the concept of retailing in Bangladesh. From the very beginning of its operation since 2001, the super-market chain store has put the convenience of its target consumers the middle and higher middle class, foremost in devising its marketing strategies. Agora attempts to maintain an image and atmosphere that is consistent with its pledge for quality and customer satisfaction. The stores occupy very large premises at expensive areas of the city and offer a wide assortment of food stuffs, daily house hold items and durables that would mostly appeal to its target population, Unlike, many such large stores, Agora tries to remain ahead of its competitors by sponsoring innovation of local innovations. Agora advertises through newspapers and billboards a very selective approach as it does not target the mass but mostly those living in close proximity to the store. The logo â€Å"Agora†- in English-points to the importance of the image factor, which is important to their promotional strategy adequate car parking space for congestion free shopping Air-conditioning and child’s play area and other amenities, are provided to increase the comfort of shopping. Although Agora is at a very early stage in its life, the management is at present following a very cautious marketing strategy. The overall 10% annual sales growth offer a reflection to the potential of Agora to attain its long term objectives of becoming the market leader in the retail industry. Near future sustainability of the competitive advantage: Agora is currently charging maximum retail price that is given to it by its suppliers. The prices are congruent with that of the rest of the market. However, the management has plans to offer prices lower than the ones offered by the competitors in the market.

One Night Stands and Regret Essay

Sex is considered a taboo up until we become college students. We have people whom want to remain chaste until marriage, we have people whom want to have experimental encounters with as many people as they can in college, and then there are people whom would only consider having sexual relations with their significant other. College parties are wild and it is guaranteed that at least 5 couples will end up hooking up at the end of the night. Most hook ups becomes one-night stands. If we were to ask those individuals if they regret their past encounters many would say yes because drugs or alcohol were involved. Drugs and and alcohol play an important role in sex. It is more likely for an intoxicated person to engage in sexual encounters than a sober person. In the magazine Psychology Today, there is an article called â€Å"If I Could do it All Over Again† that talks about the half-life of sex. In this article we are informed with statistics of men and women whom admit as to why they regret their past encounters. The article also explains scenarios of cases where sexual encounters break relationships and marriages. The biggest questioned raised by Matt Huston in his article is â€Å"When it comes to sexual misadventures, why do we feel so wrong about that which, in the heat of the moment, felt so right?† (Huston 39). Huston suggests that people feel thrill when having encounters rather than casual sex. What is there to regret of sex? Women who lose their virginity in a sexual encounter regret it because they feel like they lost their pureness to the wrong man. Women also regret having sexual encounters because they feel like they moved too fast to jump into sex. Men have other type of regrets. There are men who regret no jumping into bed and having sex with a random person. There are men who regret not being more sexually active in their youth. On a survey done to men and women, 55% of men regret not having sexual encounters. 48% of men regret not being sexually active at a young age. 43% of women regret moving too fast and jumping into sex. 41% of women regret  losing their virginity to the wrong person. Both men and women regret things differently. Women regret most of their past sexual encounters while men regret not having more sexual encounters. A very interesting study done in the Journal of Sex research, finds that regardless of sex, both genders that engage in sex with relative strangers may actually be more anxious and depressed. Another impactful statistic is that more than 70% of â€Å"college students who’d had a one-night stand had also experienced sexual regret† (39). This magazine article is very informative. It really doesn’t persuade people not to have sexual encounters; it just informs us about the people who regret sexual encounters. The magazine’s job is to inform us of a topic that really isn’t talked about on a daily basis. One can say that this magazine is sending out a subliminal message, which is to think before we engage in sexual encounters. The magazine believes that this generation has changed the idea of sex and has created a new a separate type of sex called sexual encounters. It also shows how many of these people show regret for past encounters. While shopping at Target I looked around and saw the books and magazines sections. I decided to buy a National Geographic magazine. The cover had an interesting hook; it basically said that Aliens weren’t far from earth. I bought the magazine and read the article, however, it didn’t finish the article when I decided to return the magazine to the store. The article was very boring, the language wasn’t clear to understand, and the text became boring the further I read. I went back to Target and looked around for another magazine and I decided to look at Psychology Today. My initial article to write my essay was on â€Å"Daydreams† and how those fantasies affect our futures. As I flipped through the magazine I came across the topic of sex. I read the title and I felt a relation to that topic. We’re college students and we know people whom participate in sexual encounters. Sexual encounters are something that is incredibly popular in college and especially at parties and clubs. It is interesting to know how both men and women feel after sexual encounters. Before I read this article I had no opinion on sexual encounters. I have a few friends whom participate in this type of acts. I always tell them to use protection and avoid stupid mistakes. I don’t judge people, everyone makes mistakes and many of us keep making mistakes. After I read this article it hit me. I used to believe that when someone engages in sexual encounters they aren’t sensitive and don’t have emotional feelings. But this magazine proved me wrong. Men and women do feel regret; their regret differs but they still feel regret based on a sexual encounter. I don’t regret reading this article because it really caught my attention. I scanned the article and emailed it to some of my friends. I was really amazed with the research that explained that most of the people who participate in sexual encounters are anxious and depressed. It is rude to ask personal questions to people but I’d be very interested in knowing if they are anxious or depressed. If I ever feel the necessity of participating in a sexual encounter I will think back to this article and analyze the moment. Drugs and alcohol are not our friends and intoxication can make us do things we wouldn’t do when sober. I would also think of the statistics of people whom regret the sexual encounters. This article has made me realize that there is a negative effect on sexual encounters, there is more to than just sex. Sex involves feelings. I think that every college student should read this article. Many people could prevent feeling regretful if they read an interesting article like this one. Works Cited Huston, Matt. â€Å"If I Could Do It All Over Again.† Psychology Today 1 Mar. 2014: 37-39. Print.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Light imagery in Romeo and Juliet Essay

Light imagery is a very important aspect of Romeo and Juliet. There are many references to light and dark in the children’s relationship. The light imagery is a recurring theme in the story. It is very important in setting the mood in their relationship. The depiction of light and dark is often jumbled in the story. Sometimes light is good and dark is bad, and more often it is the other way around. In the balcony scene, when Romeo was swearing his love to Juliet, she says â€Å"O swear not by the moon, th’inconsistent moon, that monthly changes in her circle orb, lest thy love prove likewise variable.† (2.2, line 110) In this quote, Juliet is telling Romeo not to swear his love by the moon, because it waxes and wanes constantly, and she did not want his love to be the same way. This quote condemns night time because of the moon and its changes. On Romeo and Juliet’s only night together, they pretend that the sun rising is just a reflection of the moon. â€Å"More light and light, the more dark and dark our woes.† (3.5 line 36) This quote from Romeo is a direct example of reverse light imagery. Because they can only be together at night, and Romeo must leave for exile at dawn, Romeo and Juliet’s troubles become worse, or darker by day, and the mood is lighter for them at night. When Juliet is preparing to be married to Paris, and her and the friar devise a plan to help her and Romeo escape to Mantua together, the friar says â€Å"and that very night shall Romeo bear the hence to Mantua.† (4.1, line 117), and â€Å"I’ll have this knot knit up tomorrow morning†(4.2, line 24) show once again how Romeo and Juliet are happy at night than they are during the day, because they can escape together at night, and during day they must face their families who do not understand their love. Light Imagery is one of Shakespear’s most common conceit in Romeo and Juliet. It is unique in this play because often, night is the time of safety and happiness because they can see each other, while day time is dangerous and sad because they can not be together.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Introduction to Organisations and Management Essay - 4

Introduction to Organisations and Management - Essay Example The concern also recognizes the presence of a union body which cares for both the administrative and operation staff. (Anglia Ruskin University, 2011).On the contrary H&M is a consultancy operating on a global framework with a huge presence in over 120 nations. The concern unlike Watsons Engine also operates based on a huge staff base of around 13,000 people. This global consulting company earns the pride of employing people reflecting specialised skills in different sectors pertaining to different infrastructural categories. H&M operating in an international scale has a large number of customers both belonging to the private and public sector. The company has a very strong and motivated organisational work culture which helps in catering to the changing needs of a diversified customer base. (Anglia Ruskin University, 2011). Organisation/structure The entire organisation is divided along separate tiers in which the total organisational task is properly divided or allocated. These org anisational layers are rendered access to the existing level of organisational resources and different levels of responsibilities are duly entrusted to fulfil the allocated tasks based on the given resources. Structural levels within the organisation are represented in the form of pyramids to reflect the flow of authority and responsibility among the stated quarters. Depending on the needs of the organization the organizational structures are uniquely fashioned like simple, functional, divisional and matrix. Organisation functioning on direct owner-employee relationship with less people is based on the simpler structure. Functional and Divisional structure focuses on creation of departments based on work specialisation. Matrix structure enhances the work specialisation concept by delegating the specialisation units under separate business heads. (Strategic Management, 2009; Murphy & Willmott, 2010, p.94). In regards to the above discussion the organisational structure of Watsons Eng ine is found to be more inclined to a more conservative sphere with less focus on innovation. Organisational structures practiced at Watsons Engine being highly dependent on hierarchical system reflect less amount of flexibility to the changes in the external environment. Furthermore the increased dependence on hierarchical system has also reduced the level of transparency in the organisation. This reduction in transparency in turn has contributed to the reduction of the productivity parameter of the employees. Flow of organisational communication in Watsons Engine generally flow from higher to lower levels of organisational hierarchy and hence also affects the motivation of the employees. Watsons Engine’s enhanced dependence on obsolete hierarchical systems only contributed in obstructing the productivity growth of the employees. On the other hand, H&M functions depending on the matrix organisation. The organisation functioning depending on the matrix organisational framewor k helps in performing complex sets of functions in an integrated and highly specialise environment. Working in an integrated framework helps the organisation to make optimum utilisation of technological and human resources. Further the organisation working

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Revised pieces 2,3,4,5,and structured Research Paper

Revised pieces 2,3,4,5,and structured - Research Paper Example Nevertheless, the actions of Capone did not allow this Act, to be effective with the numerous illegal beer breweries that he carried out. Capone’s money, power and glamour are accompanied by ruthless activities which he engages in be it murder, violence so long as his goals are achieved. His violence is clearly seen in the St. Valentine’s Day massacre becoming one of the most horrifying events in Chicago’s history. A lump sum reward will accorded to any person who brings in any invaluable information to the authorities. Contact the address at the bottom of the page. Piece 4 board games The following game is to be played by following rules and instructions Paying rent on a utility if you throw a dice and it falls on a utility owned by another player, you pay him thrice the value of the property. Timing and trading, this can happen any time, but only when you are playing. Buying a mortgaged property when buying a mortgaged property you can pay for it later in the g ame or pay for it immediately. The game includes ladders that will help you in climbing as you gain more and more wealth. Every time your dice ends in square with a ladder use to climb up The game includes jail card you will get a jail card if you fail to pay on time for rent or mortgaged property. Owners of a property are required to pay taxes failure to which they will be sent to jail. The tax will be 15% of the value of the property. The more properties you the more taxes is required of you Piece 5 how to gain and keep power Be ironic; never trust your friends too much, learn how to make use of your enemies just like AL Capone who expressed his good intentions towards his enemies by sending them flowers during their funerals. Learn to keep your intentions to yourself because you may never know who will use them against you. Get other people to do the work for you, but take the credit. AL Capone maintained his power by providing what was needed by the majority that is the poor who depended on alcohol to absorb their sorrows away. Always learn to win people by your actions, Al Capone was always there to help people who were in need and therefore despite the evil side of Capone people could care less of his criminal activities. Capone was an elegant person who valued family; he always played the part of a self-made millionaire, whose actions did not depict anything unusual that would brand him a social misfit. Although Capone died many years ago living behind a character that is emulated by script writers for various movies. Piece 6 tabloid article Al Capone’s illegal nature started way back when he was a teenager, when he joined a criminal organization by the name five point gang. After he moved to Chicago, Capone’s involvement with Colosimo, a criminal gangster led him together with Torrio to expand operations after his death. In the 1920s, he had a booming criminal; an empire that included beer breweries, night club gambling organization and a prostitution circle. Although he was a criminal, he was considered a successful businessman though the means by which he gained that fame is questionable, which is a benefit of cheating your way up to power. His fame was accompanied by admiration by those who regarded him as a business tycoon rather than a criminal gang. Often the society forgets the criminal nature of

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Criminal law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 3

Criminal law - Essay Example In one hand we have the punishment of the aggressor and in the other we have the guarantee of the victim’s protection, care, assistance and compensation.2 To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the protection of fundamental rights in the light of changes in society, social progress and scientific and technological developments by making those rights more visible in a Charter. The dignity of the human person is not only a fundamental right in itself but constitutes the real basis of fundamental rights. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrined this principle in its preamble: Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. It results that none of the rights laid down in this Charter may be used to harm the dignity of another person, and that the dignity of the human person is part of the substance of the rights laid down in this Charter. The right to life is nowadays universally acknowledged as a basic or fundamental human right. It is basic or fundamental because "the enjoyment of the r ight to life is a necessary condition of the enjoyment of all other human rights."3 As indicated by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in its Advisory Opinion on Restrictions to the Death Penalty (1983), the human right to life encompasses a "substantive principle" whereby every human being has an inalienable right to have his life respected, and a "procedural principle" whereby no human being shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life4 Its uniqueness lies in the fact that it represents a right which the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other international worldwide charter of rights, proclaiming universal and fundamental freedoms, which transcend national, religious, cultural and ideological

Monday, August 26, 2019

Project Implementation Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Project Implementation - Assignment Example This research aims at curbing misappropriation of digital data within the customer premises. This refers to the use of data available within a premise for other purposes than the intended one. This includes officers taking away data from the company server for personal use. The need for a company to protect its data arises as results of numerous cases of misappropriation go on the rise. The main goal of this project remains to secure the data which its customers require secured from access. This shall be achieved through the installation of programs which allow only a limited access. The other goal of the project would be defining and securing the information accessed from the institutions’ infrastructure. The project shall also define the points at which certain data can be accessed. Limitation of access points will translate to being able to monitor access to any classified information. Access control shall also be another of the main goals of this project. This shall be aim ed at exerting control over what people can access while at the place of work. Creation of access control systems shall be essential for the success of the project. Basically, the scope of this project lies in securing information, which can be, accessed from company premises. This being classified information owned by the company and harmful information from other places outside the company. A need arises for the project to define personal and general information. Personal data can be defined as information relating to an identifiable subject. This information may relate to numerous aspects of the subject. This is information which one can be able to link or associate with another person. In the case of Soul’s clients, this information relates to student details, results and other personal records of students. This project aims at reducing cases of information

Sunday, August 25, 2019

What does The Walt Disney Company do related to anthropocene, Research Paper

What does The Walt Disney Company do related to anthropocene, environment and ecosystem - Research Paper Example icated the actions of man from the time of earlier development to late on the environment, the company Walt Disney has focused some of their returns and activities to promote environmental conservation aspects. The study focuses on the different contributions that the company has made to this regard. Based on this, the thesis of the study is the fact that the Walt Disney Company does not only concern on their financial aspects that focus on their profits and business development, but also the different environmental concerns. As such, it considers all anthropocenic aspects that have generated different environmental effects leading to extinction of other species and a negative effect to the environment. The study focuses on the different efforts that the company has put in the achievement of environmental goals and supporting the environment, the reasons as to why the company engages in environmental aspects, and the targets that the company aimed for in developing the Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund. The reflection of the different themes in the movies developed by the company all symbolize the commitment that the company has over the environmental effects. These aspects are all discussed in the work below: Walt Disney Company does numerous activities to promote ecosystem and environmental aspects that range from the development of advocacy aspects. The development of the Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund and the development of property that is curved to the environmental aspects. Through these, programs such as sustainable tourism have come to start. Sustainable tourism refers to tourism activities that encourage the tourism aspects that protect the environment, the inclusion of different economic activities cultures that promote local experiences in improving the environment. Walt Disney Company has developed solid conservation aspects through policies and practices that have put the company on top in relation to environmental aspects. The leadership of

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Globalization in Morocco Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Globalization in Morocco - Essay Example The population of Morocco is approximately 33,757,175 (World Fact Book) with a mixture of ethnic groups like Muslims, Christians, Arabs, Jewish and others. The official language spoken is Arabic and its dialects and the language used for business is French. Their legal system is based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law systems. The economic policies of Morocco brought some stability to the country in the 1990’s but could not initiate sufficient growth to put an end to the prevailing unemployment problems. The problem worsened when draught reduced the output in agriculture and as a result wheat had to be imported at sky rocketing world prices. Trying to build up small and medium enterprises and its continued dependence on foreign energy slowed down the economy still further. Therefore Moroccan authorities realize that understanding the reasons for their poverty and providing jobs to beat the problem of unemployment and improving agriculture are the key points necessary to improve domestic security and further development. To improve the living conditions of its people the Moroccan Government is trying to implement a few reforms in their effort of opening its economy to foreign investors. Their currency the dirham is wholly convertible only for current account transactions. In 2005, the Moroccan Government launched the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH), a $2 billion social development plan that addressed the poverty and unemployment issues of the country and to improve the conditions of the urban slums in the country. (World Fact Book) In 2006, it also took part in the FTA (Free Trade Agreement) (World Fact Book) with the United States to resolve some of the long term issues associated with improvement in education and Job prospects for Moroccan youth. The FTA is also responsible for bridging the gap between the rich and the poor by encouraging tourism and boosting competition in the textile

Friday, August 23, 2019

The growing human population Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The growing human population - Essay Example This rate of increase has had a severe impact on the environment. The world most populated country is China with the population of 1.2 billion people. The population of China is expected to double in the next 60 years. This will happen despite China’s government enacting policies of one child per couple. Additionally, the population growth in USA is growing at the rate of 1%, with current population of 270 million, it is estimated that the population will be double in the next 70 years (Pimental 1) Increasing population is attributed to fertility rate, this is evident when developed and developing countries populations are compared. Analysis of developed countries such as in Europe and USA shows that they have less population growth. The study of population growth in the developing countries shows that their population is increasing at alarming rate. This could be attributed to the fact that couples in developed countries are well aware of the cost of large families. Approximately 2 billion of the world populations are malnourished; this number is expected to double in the future. Populous countries like India have the high number of poor people, to add this, food production is a problem, and these are just some of the negative aspects of large

Professional Analysis of Job Description Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Professional Analysis of Job Description - Essay Example A HR manager should have excellent control over communication skills. This not only involves speaking and listening, but also not verbal communication such as written and control over facial expressions. For a company that requires only the best, prior experience in this field is an absolute necessity. Until and unless the HR manager has seen and lived through enough years of handling different employees, a manager is not be ready to face challenges that a big company creates. The HR manager position at the manufacturing organization is very demanding even for an experienced manager. Apart from the skills required as mentioned in the above section, the HR manager would be required to develop the organization and management culture. Complete business units/teams will have to be created, coordinated and evaluated so that managers could meet their business objectives. The HR manager would also be required to improve the individual skills of the employees so that the organization as a whole can benefit from it. Another differentiating requirement for this HR manager position is the need to be involved in the commercial decisions taken by the organization. Not only would the manager need to understand business decisions, the manager would also need to facilitate the business and solve any business issues within the organizational teams. Truly such responsibilities cannot be undertaken by an inexperienced manager, in-fact an experienced manager would find under taking such duties, roles and responsibilities enormously challenging. (McNamara,

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Human Resource Management and Personnel Management Essay Example for Free

Human Resource Management and Personnel Management Essay Introduction 1. This report discusses the historical development of Human Resource Management (HRM), identifies the role and purposes of HRM, and also to distinguish between personnel management and HRM. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) defines personnel management as the part of management concerned with people at work and with their relationships within an enterprise. It aims to bring together, and develop into an effective organisation, the people within an business, having regard for the welfare of the individual and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success. HRM may be defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisations most valued assets: the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives for sustainable competitive advantage. The Nature and Development of Personnel management 2. HRM obtained acknowledgment in the late 1970s in the USA, as a label for the way companies such as IBM were managing their people. These companies applied the principles outlined by David Guest (1989) to gain a competitive edge over their competitors. These four principles are listed below. a) Strategic integration -the ability of organisations to integrate HRM issues into their strategic plans, to ensure that the various aspects of HRM cohere and for line managers to incorporate a HRM perspective into their decision making. b) High commitment people must be managed in a way that ensures both their genuine behavioural commitment to pursuing the goals of the organisation and their attitudinal commitment, reflected in strong identification with the organisation. c) Flexibility HRM policies must be structured to allow maximum flexibility for the organisation, so it can respond to ever changing business needs: for example, by encouraging functional versatility in employees and by creating an adaptable organisational structure with the capacity to manage innovation. d) High Quality The notion of quality must run through everything the organisation does, including the management of employees and investment in high-quality employees, which in turn will bear directly on the quality of the goods and services provided. Personnel management can be traced back to second half of the nineteenth century when Victorian workers were hit hard by the industrialisation, and urbanisation of Britain. Companies such as Cadbury and Rowntree, initiated programmes for their employees managed on their behalf by industrial welfare workers, the philosophy behind these people was that in the welfare tradition, the work and responsibilities of the personnel officer was directed to the employees, rather than to the strategic concerns of the organisation and its management. The programmes included facilities such as company housing, health care, education for workers families and so on. The motivation for these measures included, that they reflected a wider social reform, led by political and religious groups. In the USA groups like Quakers were abolishing slavery, and striving to increase business performance by the moral and social enhancement of their employees. Moreover, as more motivation to convert to these programmes, improved health and education for the workers and their families meant that these employers would have a better reputation with employees and consumers, employees would be more committed and motivated, also there would always be great demand for a job within the company. This can be linked to Maslows theory on the hierarchy of needs, in which he states that workers are motivated by five different needs. Physiological- pay, holidays (lower order need) Safety Health and safety measures, pensions (lower order need) Social formal and informal groups, social events (lower order need) Self-esteem power, promotion (higher order need) Self-actualisation challenging work, developing new skills (higher order need) These programmes and jobs would provide something for each of the lower order needs, therefore increasing motivation throughout the workforce. Furthermore, consumers would feel morally better as they were buying products that were helping the working classes. This could be considered very similar to the ideas linked with the popularity of fair trade products in modern day society. The demise of the working class was outlined at this time when the British government had problems recruiting troops for the Crimean and Boer wars, as many people failed the medical, and the health of the nations labourers was brought into the limelight. The need for negotiation, conflict resolution and the management of relationships between labour and management occurred in 1871 with the legislation of trade unions. This was recognised politically, with formation of the aptly named Labour Representation Committee in 1900, which was renamed in 1906 as the Labour party, which was largely funded by the trade union development. In 1911, the National Insurance Scheme created the first welfare provisions for workers in the result of illness, or unemployment. The establishment of the Ministry of Labour to address wider issues and representations quickly followed this in 1916. In the 1930s and 40s management theorists changed attributes of their theories, as scientific management which was in current use came under scrutiny for dehumanising employees. This is when the HRM approach began to appear, being backed by Maslow, Herzberg, and McGregor who shifted their attention to the higher order needs, as shown above on Maslows hierarchy of needs. The new key to motivation of the workforce involved job satisfaction, which it was then believed, could not be achieved just from maintenance factors like pay and working conditions. The governments influence on industrial relations, and the workforces continued until the mid 1970s in conjunction with social reforms in health and education. After this time the UK government did not interfere in collaborated relationships between the employer and employee, with the exception of trade union reform. In spite of that the latter half of the twentieth century saw extreme legislation in all sectors of employment. It was during this era that the industrial relations tradition suggests that the work and the responsibility of the personnel officer was to mediate and even arbitrate between the sides in industrial disputes, to facilitate collective bargaining, negotiation and compliance with the current industrial relations laws. As a response to the escalating speed of organisational expansion and alterations, the control of labour tradition suggests that the work and responsibility of the personnel officer is to support management by regulating the range of workplace activity. This includes job allocation, performance, absenteeism, pay, communication, training, and so on. The CIPD have endeavoured to establish personnel management as a career, by providing a programme of learning resulting in a qualification. However, many personnel managers do not posses this qualification and this is rarely seen as an obstruction within the career. It is safe to say that all personnel managers will use remnants of the welfare, industrial, and the control of labour traditions to become part of the professional tradition that is occurring today. The Role and Tasks of the Personnel Function 3. Personnel specialists can take various roles like line mangers, advisors, service providers, auditors, Co-ordinators and planners and in todays modern world of rapidly developing technology, ethics, and growing organisations in any business there is need for specialist advice on personnel matters, whether it is internal or external. This is because the practise of personnel management needs to be consistent, impartial, proficient and on course with organisational goals, as there are constant developments in this field that require expertise in the area of personnel management. The need for this specialist has several contributing factors including the need to comply with changing regulation and legislation, for example the personnel specialist may be used to recruit staff to avoid sex or racial discrimination. Constant changes within the labour market have also meant that policies need to be designed by someone with current knowledge on the matter. Moreover, trade unions, industrial tribunals, and the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) have a continuous role in employee relations; therefore having some one who is familiar with the legislation amongst other things that is used would be very useful. However, since there the existing role of the personnel manager is so diverse there are different models derived by different theorists. A popular model is that suggested by Tyson and Fell (1986). The three roles that they suggest are: * The clerk of works model all authority for actions is with line managers. Personnel policies are formed after the actions that created the need. Policies are not integral and are short term and ad hoc. Personnel activities are routine and involve day-to-day administration. * The contracts manager model Policies are established, often implicit, with heavy industrial relations emphasis. The personnel department will use fairly sophisticated systems especially with regard to employee relations. The personnel manager is likely to be a professional or experienced in industrial relations. They should take on the role of policing the implementation of policies, but does not create them. * The architect model Explicit corporate personnel policies exist as part of the corporate strategy. HR planning and development are important concepts. The head of the function is likely to be on the Board of Directors, and is therefore seen as a professional, making an important contribution to the business. Policies are often formed to assist in the personnel function to make sure that people are treated equally, and that laws and regulations are met. These can include equal opportunities, disciplinary policies, and safety policies. The policies are based upon legislation put in place by the Government and the EU in certain areas like safety. The values and philosophies of the business about how the employees should be treated and what kind of behaviour will enable them to work most effectively on the organisations behalf. The needs and wants of employees, and the organisations need to attract and retain the kind of employees it wants by its reputation of practice as an employer. The Shift in Approach Which Has Led to the Term HRM 4. Throughout history the social change has been reflected in personnel management, and which also changes in conjunction with the social needs. This is shown by the implementation of legislation and rules, to stop discrimination and aid safety measures, as the social climate becomes more morally aware of the workforce. In the late nineteenth century it would not have been unheard of for people to die at work, even into the twentieth century there were still accident that occur to labourers working in primary industries, but this became more shocking, as with the development of technology it was publicised by the media and made safer by improvements, as a company realised that its image was very important. A political and economic change is also evident through out history, for example in the 1970s when the government would no longer interfere with some matters between employer and employee relations, this is because it was realised that full employment was not as important as controlling inflation and other economic factors. Also HRM has become common through out the business world and is thoroughly integrated into the organisational structure of a business. This is because it has been found that companies use this approach in different strengths to achieve a competitive edge over their rivals. Today companies like Marks Spencer, McDonalds, and even public sector businesses like British Gas are using various strengths of HRM. Recommendations 5. To draw conclusion, it is my recommendation that Phoenix Tannoy Ltd. consider establishing a HR department as it is shown in history that the use of HRM does give a competitive edge over rivals, by motivating employees. The reality is that by moving to a HR department Phoenix Tannoy will motivate its workforce by implementing policies and procedures that benefit all the staff. Motivated staff are then more committed to the organisation, and motivated into doing the best they can to help the business achieve its goals. Moreover, a HR department would remove the depersonalised face of the personnel department and make the company less bureaucratic.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Almond Tree By Jon Stallworthy

The Almond Tree By Jon Stallworthy A poem which involves a journey which is both literal and metaphorical is The Almond Tree By Jon Stallworthy. We are made aware of this journeys deeper significance through the poets use word choice, imagery, mood, structure and rhythm. This poem describes a significant event in the poets life. He describes his thoughts and feeling as he proceeds through his journey of emotions as he tries to handle the fact his child has been born with a disability. It is significant that the poet allows the reader to join the speaker on his journey of changing emotions; therefore, his excitement as he journeys to the hospital makes our feelings of sympathy greater when we see his life tumble with misery when he finds out the news of his sons disability. Stallworthy follows his journey from his car journey to the moment he reaches the hospital room where his child is being born. His excitement as he proceeds to the hospital increases as he gets closer and closer to his awaited child. The use of the simile The lights were green as peppermints highlights his joy as the word peppermints suggests happiness and sweetness of life. Also, it tells us that the traffic lights were green all the way to the hospital, this highlights his luckiness and describe his literal journey on the roads to the place of his childs birth, but could also refer more metaphorically to the idea that his life is on the move as he approaches his journey towards fatherhood and the adventures which having a child brings. Stallworthy highlights a great change in the mans life here as he journeys literally and metaphorically to his sons birth. Stallworthy also uses many metaphors when describing his journey to his new son. The metaphor the lucky prince suggests to the reader fairy tales and luck which shows that he is looking forward to something special. Fairy tales are usually associated with childhood and normally have a happy ending; just as the poet expects his journey to the hospital to have a happy ending. This again, emphasises the joy he felt as he endures his journey to meet his brand new son. Stallworthy makes use of the seasons in his poem to show how he is feeling as the poem goes on. banishing winter with a nod This is effective as winter is thought of as a cold, depressing and gloomy time of year where nothing is produced. Although, he here writes that he can banish this gloomy time with just a nod. This tells us that during his journey he is in a happy mood and feels powerful and confident in his own body. After his optimistic and joyous journey to the hospital in the car, we are given signs that something may be wrong. Stallworthy uses word choice to tell us a problem is about to arise in his journey. He says shuddering walls. The word shuddering relates to the walls of the womans womb contracting as she experiences labour. It also has negative connotations as it links to helplessness as shuddering is an involuntary action. It therefore stresses the discomfort of the woman giving birth. The rhythm of this stanza, up until this point is irregular and fast, which greatly contrasts with the rhythm of the previous stanzas. The pace of this section mimics the quick heartbeat faced as you wait for the birth of your child. The idea of discomfort and pain is shown in the next section of his literal journey as he journeys towards the ward. The doors are described as slicing which can be regarded as an element of pain and brings an unpleasant image to the readers mind. At this moment in the poe m, Stallworthy begins to reveal that his metaphorical journey is going to take a turn for the worse. Directly following the negative words, the narrator is given a piece of news which kills him. He is told his son had downs syndrome and from this point his metaphorical journey changes from great joy to utter devastation. From this point onwards, the narrator must face this difficulty and get on with life. Although he must, first, try to get over it in his head. This is the next stage of his metaphorical journey. This was my first death This suggests to the reader that this is the first time the man has ever been this upset, he feels as if he has just been told that his son has died. He had dreams and hopes for his sons future and these have all been taken away as quickly as possible. This could also suggest that he, himself has died in that he will never be the same person again. The way in which the speaker describes the impact his sons disability will have on their relationship is significant. we will tunnel each other out. This suggests that the narrator feels he will be able to support his disabled child and equally he feels that he will gain a lot from the experience. Through his metaphorical and literal journey, he experienced great joy and significant pain but overall he realises that he must love his son for who he is and not the disability which he faces. It is extremely clear that Stallworthy learnt a great deal from his journey and can appreciate life further as he has experienced trauma like he had never been through before. He may be a stronger person as a result of his journey; it has awakened him into the real world. In conclusion, we are made aware of the main message of the poem, that thorough loss, we may gain. Through the poets journey, he gained confidence and was reborn into the real world, where pain is a regular occurrence. His literal journey was his drive to the hospital and then walking briskly to the ward, where his child awaited him. His metaphorical journey took 3 main stages; great joy as he journeyed to the hospital, absolute destruction and desolation when he learnt of his sons disability and finally realisation that love and a great deal of understanding can be enough to deal with a crisis. Stallworthy made the reader more aware of the deeper significance of his journeys though imagery, word choice and other effective poetic techniques

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Food Safety for the Home Environment

Food Safety for the Home Environment Milena Marcinek Part 1: Handling food This part will help you to evidence Learning Outcome 1: Know the importance of handling food safely Learning objective Place in Assessment Explain why it is important to handle food safely Question 1 Page 1 1.2 Identify hazards relating to food safety Question 2 Page 2 1.3 Identify ways in which food should be handled safely to avoid contamination during the following operations: Storage Preparation Cooking Serving Re-heating Question 3, Page 2 1. Explain why it is important to handle food safely. [1.1] Safe food handling prevents food from being contaminated. It is highly important to preven food contamination as contaminated food can cause not only heachache or atomach pain but also can lead to severe health problems such a kidney failure and even death. If people who are responsible for handling the food do not take enough care for safe food handling they might put peoples health at risk. 2. What are the key hazards to be aware of when it comes to food safety? Identify at least three examples in your answer. [1.2] Bacterial Hazard: Over time food can be subject to a range of changes caused by micro- organisms such as bacteria, fmould, yeast, viruses. As a result the color, taste texture can be affected. Some of the changes look unpleasant bu they do not have to be dangerous for humans life although some forms of bacterial contamination, caused by pathogenic bacteria, causes the food to become inedible or a potential hazard to health. Foreign Bodies: The food may be contaminated by the foreign body even before the food is reacheing the home. Examples of foreign body: I pieces of metal, wood, plastic and food packaging, II bones, shells, pips, stalks and stones. III hairs, jewellery, plasters, nails, saliva Allergic Hazard The most common food that cause alergic reaction are milk, soya, nuts, seafood. Even just a tiny bit of certain food can cause severe reaction. Food allergic can lead to anaphylaxis. Sufferers can experience swelling of the throat, breathing problems and potential collapse. Food labels have to always inform if the food might have any conatct with any of food that can cause allergic reaction. Chemical Hazard 3. Complete the table below by identifying how food should be handled in order to avoid contamination during each of the operations listed: [1.3] Operation How food should be handled Storage Every type of food has an ideal storage condions. If food is storaged in a wrong way the food can quickly become inedible or unusasble. Preparation Keep the highest hygine standart at the place where food is being brepared. The perosn who prepares the food should fallow the highest hygene standarts. Cooking Food should be cooked throughly to avaoid bacterial contamination. If the temeperature of cooking is not high enough then bacteria may survive and people eating undercooked food risks becoming ill. Serving It is important to ensure that hot food dont go cold, persihable foods are not left in room temperature for longer than two hours and people do not make contact with food they do not intend to eat. Re-heating Food shouldnt be re-heated more then one time. Re-heated food must be minimum 75 degrees C. To check the temeperature of food an appropriate thermometer should be used. Take particular care when feeding pre-heated food to vulnerable people. For food such as soups be sure to stir them so the whole foodstuff is at required temperature. Now that you have completed Part 1 of your Assessment, remember to save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking once you have completed all 7 Parts of this Assessment. Part 2: Personal hygiene This part will help you to evidence Learning Outcome 2: Know the importance of personal hygiene when handling food Learning objective Place in Assessment 2.1 Explain ways of maintaining personal hygiene when handling food that helps reduce the risk of contamination Question 1 Page 3 2.2 Identify how and when to wash hands Question 2a Page 4 Question 2b Page 5 2.3 Describe potential problems resulting from not maintaining personal hygiene when handling food Question 3 Page 5 1. Explain three ways of maintaining personal hygiene when handling food. Also provide a brief explanation as to how these efforts can reduce the risk of contamination. [2.1] a) People should avoid touching or combing their hair while handling with food as hairs can physically contaminate the food. In commercial enviroment food handlers have to cover their hair with a hair net or other form of covering. These efforts reduce risks of getting hairs into food what is not only not pleasant but olso have a potential to be harmfull to death. b) People should take off jewellery while they handle the food. Jewellery can harbour bacteria and dirt and also brings a risk of phissical conatmination c) People should ensure their nails are short and tidy while they handle food. The food handler shouldnt use nail varnish or fake nails that can drop of. Following this rules reduces risks of physical conatmination ( bits of nails, varnish, dirt undar nail, or pieces of fake nails can conataminate the food ) 2a. Read the case study below describing a typical day for Chris. Afterwards, identify three situations where he should have washed his hands. [2.2] Chris works in a sandwich shop every weekday from 9am to 6pm. He gets up and out of bed at 7 and jumps into the shower straight away. Once dressed, he heads downstairs for breakfast. Today, he’s decided to have his favourite; bacon sandwiches. He puts the bacon into the sizzling hot pan and waits until it is brown and crispy. He also chops up some fresh tomatoes from the fridge before putting together his meal. He is running late so takes his sandwich with him to the bus stop. He needs to finish it quickly to pay for his ticket and hold on to the side bar because the journey is unusually bumpy and busy. When he arrives at work, Chris puts on a plastic apron and gloves immediately and positions himself behind the counter awaiting his first morning customers. By lunchtime, Chris has put together 34 sandwiches and he sets about making the total 35 by preparing his own. Once he has made his lunch, Chris removes his gloves and apron and sits himself in the staff room, ready to rewa rd his hard work. Between mouthfuls, he decides to make a cup of tea so wanders over to turn the kettle on and get a spare mug from the cupboard. He sits himself back down until the kettle has boiled which conveniently coincides with his final bite. He places his plate in the dishwasher, makes his tea and prepares to head back to his second shift. After returning home from work, Chris quickly uses the bathroom before beginning to prepare his dinner. He takes some chicken from the fridge and cuts it into cubes for a stir fry. Whilst doing so, his phone rings so he runs to answer it. It’s his mum, so he finds comfy place to sit down as he expects it will be a long chat! Your answer: a) before touching bacon, after touching bacon and before cutting tomatoes b) When arriving to work befor he starts making sandwiches and before coming back to work after the break c) Before cutting the chicken 2b. Prepare some simple instructions that could be used to explain the correct technique for hand washing. [2.2] use warm water and good amount of soap rub palm to palm rub backs of both hands rub palm to palm with fingers interlaced rub backs of fingers ( interlocked) rub each thumb clasped I nopposite hand using a rotation movement rub both palms with fingertips dry torhoughly in clean paper towel or use hand dryer 3. Describe three potential problems that can result from not maintaining personal hygiene when handling food. [2.3] a) foreign object conatmination If people who deal with handling the food dont keep high hygene standarts as covering their hair, wearing appropriate clothes, keeping nails clean and tidy or they wear jewellery while they handle any food they might contaminate food with foreign objcect such as for example : hairs, pieces of jewellery, pieces of nails or clothes. b) Food poisoning bacteria Lack of personal hygiene can result in food poiosning bacteria. To avoid it people handling the food should remember to wash their hands, keep the kitchen area clean, not to store rice at room temeperature for sustained period, carefool cook and cool the food, wash thoroughly the meat, fish and vegetable, not to use damaged cans, preserve food carefully, keep raw and cooked food separately, keep food at safe temeperature, keep animals away from food, avoid coughing and sneezing on food, cover cuts, pay attention to use by dates. c) Foodborn disease Foodborne illness is caused by consuming contaminated foods or beverages. Many different disease-causing microbes or pathogens can contaminate foods, so there are many different types of foodborne illnesses. Most foodborne diseases are infections caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Other diseases are poisonings caused by harmful toxins or chemicals that have contaminated food. Of note many foodborne pathogens also can be acquired through recreational or drinking water, from contact with animals or their environment, or through person-to-person spread. Here are a few dos and donts to prevent food borne illness: *Dont leave foods that need to be chilled sitting out. Refrigerate and freeze necessary foods right away. *Do use a meat thermometer to make sure your food is cooked thoroughly. *Do wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with warm, soapy water before and after handling any raw meats, fruits and vegetables. *Do wash utensils and disinfect surfaces before and after use. *Dont defrost food on the kitchen counter. Instead, use the refrigerator, cold running water, or the microwave oven. *Dont let food marinate at room temperature. *Keep marinating food refrigerated. *Dont over pack the refrigerator. Now that you have completed Part 2 of your Assessment, remember to save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking once you have completed all 7 Parts of this Assessment. Part 3: Storing food This part will help you to evidence Learning Outcome 3: Know how to store food safely Learning objective Place in Assessment 3.1 Explain how to store the following types of food correctly to avoid contamination: Fresh Convenience High risk Low risk Question 1 Page 6 3.2 Explain why it is important to follow food storage instructions Question 2 Page 7 1. In the table below, explain the correct way to store the different food types in order to avoid contamination: [3.1] Food type Storage method Fresh Raw meat, fish and poultry should be stored in the bottom of a fridge below ready to eat food. Fresh salad vegetables should be stored in lided boxes in a fridge to prevent it from being contaminated by drips from raw food. Convenience Convenience food should have a label saying what is its best storage method. High risk High risk food should be keeped in low temeperature enviroment such as refrigerator and only for short duration outside of that. Low risk Can be stored in dry, cool, dry area , ideally in the shade. 2. In 50 words or less, explain why it is important to follow food storage instructions. [3.2] IT is importarnt to follow food storage instruction to be sure that the food is being kept in right condition and to prevent food spoiling to quickly and to reduce risk of food poisoning. Now that you have completed Part 3 of your Assessment, remember to save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking once you have completed all 7 Parts of this Assessment. Part 4: Importance of correct food storage This part will help you to evidence Learning Outcome 4: Know how food storage can affect the nutritional value of food Learning objective Place in Assessment 4.1 Outline how storage methods can affect the nutritional value of food Question 1 Page 8 Outline in 50 words or less, how storage methods can affect the nutritional value of food. [4.1] Nutrition in food is prone to change with time. Exposure to light, temeperature, water or oxygen can cause all sorts of reactions in food what effects in nutritional changes of the food. Now that you have completed Part 4 of your Assessment, remember to save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking once you have completed all 7 Parts of this Assessment. Part 5: Keeping the food work area clean This part will help you to evidence Learning Outcome 5: Know how to keep the food work area clean Learning objective Place in Assessment 5.1 Describe why it is important to keep the food work area clean, hygienic and disinfected Question 1 Page 9 5.2 Outline ways of keeping the food work area clean, hygienic and disinfected Question 2 Page 9 1. Describe why it is important to keep the food work area clean, hygienic and disinfected. [5.1] Keeping the food work area clean, hygenic and disinfected eliminates bacteria growth, reduces bacteria to safe level, creates the inviroment that is uinattractive to pests and verim, minimises the possibility of cross conatmination, results in a clean and safe enviroment for the people who are preparing the food. 2. Outline three actions that you can take in order to keep the food work area clean, hygienic and disinfected. [5.2] a) To avoid cross conatamination you can restrict some food preparation and cooking tasks to specific part of the kitchen. Yo can also have dedictaed equipment for certain tasks, such as colour coded chopiing boards. b) Disinfect food contact surfaces, hand contact surfaces as well as equipment used to clean the kitchen to avoid cross contamination . c) Clean the kitchen area systematically and implement kitchen cleaning scheadule. Now that you have completed Part 5 of your Assessment, remember to save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking once you have completed all 7 Parts of this Assessment. Part 6: Checking food is cooked to the correct temperature This part will help you to evidence Learning Outcome 6: Know how to check food is cooked to the correct temperature Learning objective Place in Assessment 6.1 Describe why it is important to ensure that food is cooked to the correct temperature Question 1 Page 10 6.2 Give examples of ways to check food is cooked to the correct temperature Question 2 Page 10 1. Describe why it is important to ensure that food is cooked to the correct temperature. [6.1] Bacteria multiply in the temperature between 5 and degrees 65 Celcius. Baceria are killed in the temeperature above 75 degrees Celcius so it is important to check the food is cooked all the way through to be sure there is no threat to peoples health. 2. Give two examples of how you can check that food is cooked to the correct temperature. [6.2] Example 1: U can use food thermometer to check if the food is cooked in a correct way. Example 2: Yo can also see if food is piping hot and steam is visible before the food is served. Now that you have completed Part 6 of your Assessment, remember to save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking once you have completed all 7 Parts of this Assessment. Part 7: Disposing of food waste This part will help you to evidence Learning Outcome 7: Know how to dispose of food waste safely Learning objective Place in Assessment 7.1 Describe why it is important to dispose of food waste safely Question 1 Page 11 7.2 Outline how to dispose of food waste safely Question 2 Page 11 1. Describe why it is important to dispose of food waste safely. [7.1] It is important to dispose of food waste safetly to avoid cross contamination- when the food is no longer going to be consumed it should be thrown away straight away. If we leave the unwanted food at home it can be a place where bacteria are able to thrive. Bacteria van be spread to other food that still can be consumed what causes a risk for humans health. It is also important to dispose of food waste in a safe way to avoid pests at home. 2. Outline two ways in which you can dispose of food safely. [7. 2] a) Do not left food waste undercovered before throwing it away. Waste needs to be disposed of immediately b) Clean with water food containers and food packaging. This removes small bits of food that can facilitate bacteria growth. Now that you have completed all 7 Parts of this Assessment, go to www.vision2learn.com. Log in to the platform and send your Assessment to your tutor via your My Study page for marking. Good luck! Â © Creating Careers Ltd, 2015. All rights reserved.Page 1 of 16

Monday, August 19, 2019

The History Of Basbeall Cards :: essays research papers

The History of Baseball Cards Baseball cards have a very broad history. In the beginning, god made man. Then, man produced... the baseball card. From 1887 to the present, billions of baseball cards have been produced. Some cards are valued at ten cents, while others, are valued at over one hundred thousand dollars. Since 1887, Baseball cards have been a major part of many people's lives. The Beginning of the baseball card-collecting era would lead cards to a path of greatness and immortality. The first baseball cards were made of a cloth like material. Many of these cards were "home made†. No one but the creator of these cards knows for sure what exactly was used to produce these early cards. This time period started on 1887 and continued on until 1901. The 1887 baseball cards were part of a unique set. Not only did this set contain baseball cards, but it also contained boxing, golf, and horse racing cards. These cards are very high in value because of there rarity and because they are some of the earliest baseball cards. The common â€Å"old time† card is worth around $800. All of these cards athletes are average in talent, considering that there were no â€Å"all star† athletes then. There were not many card sizes during this time period. The only size I found was one and a half inches by two inches. There were many company’s that manufactured cards during this time period. They were Mayo Tobacco Works, Buchner, Kimball's, Old Judge, Allen & Ginter, and Goodwin. These cards are rare, but are not very difficult to obtain if you're willing to pay top dollar. What many collectors call "the golden years of baseball", took place from 1902 until1935. One reason that collectors call this time period that is because cards took many different changes during this era. Cards were starting to be packaged with chewing tobacco, Crackerjacks, and bubble gum. The value of cards during this time period depends on many different factors. A large percent of these cards have mistakes, misprints, or flaws. Because of these misprints, a card with a misprint might have higher value than the exact card with no flaws. The reason there were so many misprints was because the card industry was just starting to experiment with the printing process. The most expensive baseball card of all time was produced during this era. That card was the Honus Wagner T-206 produced in 1909.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Sweden’s Position on Personal Privacy in Cyberspace Essay -- Swedish S

Sweden’s Position on Personal Privacy in Cyberspace The Internet and computer age has enabled people to work faster and more efficiently, with practically unlimited access to information. As much as the technology boom has made our lives easier, as with most good inventions, there is some negativity that must be dealt with. The dissemination of information on the global network has put personal privacy at risk. Obviously, we are not going to give up new technologies that enrich human life for the sake of maintaining our privacy; however, measures must be taken to keep the public, or government, from abusing the Internet and computer databases for malevolent reasons. Every country in the world has its own policies on human rights to personal privacy and will deal with the threat the Internet has presented. In this paper, we will explore Swedish laws and regulations and its viewpoint on safekeeping privacy in this Internet age. A recent survey called â€Å"Digital Life Index†, which is conducted year by the Jupiter Research group, concluded that Swedes were the most digital-savvy people amongst 17 Western European countries. This title essentially means that Swedes are more prone to trying out new technologies when they first come out on the market. Swedish households are more likely than their Western European counterparts to own digital handheld gadgets, satellite dishes, mobile phones, and high-speed Internet connections.[1] We can assume that this translates into more time spent using the Internet and transferring information across databases, which requires Sweden to be considerably more conscious of preserving its people privacy. Sweden, historically, has held personal privacy in very high regard compared to other cou... ...Data Directive", <http://dsv.su.se/jpalme/society/eu-data-directive-revision.html> [15] Palme, J.; â€Å"Swedish Attempts to Regulate the Internet†, <http:/dsv.su.se/jpalme/society/swedish-attempts.html> [16] Privacy Exchange, â€Å"Summary of the New Personal Data Protection Act for Sweden†, <http:/www.privacyexchange.org/legal/nat/omni/swedensum.html> [17] Palme, J.; â€Å"Critical Review of the Swedish Data Act†, <http:/dsv.su.se/jpalme/society/data-act-analysis.html> [18] Palme, J.;â€Å"Swedish Law on Responsibilities for Internet Information Providers†, <http:/dsv.su.se/jpalme/society/swedish-bbs-act.html> [19] Swedish Data Inspection Board, <http:/www.datainspektionen.se/pdf/arsredovisningar/eng_1999.pdf> [20] Arrision, S., 23 Oct 2003,"Perspective: Privacy Lessons from Europe", CNet News, < http://news.com.com/2010-1069-962993.html?tag=lh>

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Beginnings of Democracy Essay

As time went by and sedentary conditions began to stabilize, the relations between the king, council and assembly changed as well. The council proved to be more resilient than the king and disputes on succession and opposition to a weak king did not help to improve the status of monarchy. It was imminent that the council whose members were supported by their dependents in the population would gain more power than the king. Although the position of king remained in most cities, its authority ultimately decreased, and the position itself became an elective post which was limited to a year. New positions were also required as the states began to increase its territories. On the other hand, powerful families would rely on their dependents for support, without which they could gain no favor from the council. Thus, in the Greek classical period, final decisions were made by a majority vote on the public assembly. The assembly became the sovereign and we see the birth of democracy. The public assembly’s sovereignty, however, was not won through a class struggle. Conflicts between powerful head of families were resolved through an appeal to their followers who attended the assembly. Perhaps because the leaders would prefer to keep the stability of the states, or perhaps it is preferable to settle disputes between citizens, most especially between powerful families, through diplomatic solutions, or more likely the fear of a threat of an appeal to a violent mob, that decisions were reached favoring whoever can amass a larger supporter. Hence, a family with more dependents would become politically dominant than one with lesser dependents. The rise of tyrants did not further improve the status of the king and council as sovereign of the states. Contrary to its modernized meaning, tyrants were not necessarily bad, as oppressors or unpopular rulers. These were challengers to the current power. Generally, this is the term applied to rulers who had no hereditary or legal claim to rule. They have gained such positions through the benefits they brought to the city or by having risen as champions of popular movements. The rule of tyrants, however, would soon be perceived negatively. Sealey explained that â€Å"the public life in the classical Greek city was highly competitive, and when one competitor far outdistanced his rivals, they felt that they no longer had a fair chance; they used the term ‘tyrant’ to express their disapproval of his excessive preeminence† (39). Peter John Rhodes held that the name and substance of politics was invented by the Greeks (3). He explained that the Greeks have â€Å"the first society in which states were governed not at the whim of an all-powerful ruler but by citizens who ‘took it in turn to rule and be ruled’†¦ , in accordance with agreed constitutional procedures where policy was decided not by intrigue in the court or bedchamber but by debate in the council and assembly† (Rhodes 3). Aside from citizens, there were non-citizens and slaves who were owned by a citizen or the state. These allowed the citizens to devote time in politics. The reintroduction of the use of alphabet would also contribute to the rise of the public assembly as the sovereign of Greek states. Greek states, independently of each other, adopted an alphabet that seems of a Semitic origin. This alphabet would later prove to be characteristic of the Greeks as a nation. It made available the development of literature, of which was traditionally recited orally. The increase of literacy among the citizens would also allow them to demand that state laws be put in writing. Hence, we see a steady rise in power of the citizenry. Trade, Warfare, and Alliances As population began to increase, the acquisition of new territories was a natural solution. Though some began to colonize other regions, it proved to be insufficient to provide homeland and to feed the growing population. Powerful states would look into invading a weaker neighboring state. These inter-state warfare brought upon improvement in warfare. Warfare before 800 BC were very different from the wars the Greeks waged against each other, and later, in defense from Persian invasion, during the classical period, or which the armies were organized in a formation known as the phalanx. As evidenced by the Homeric poems, Greek warfare in antiquity was carried out by relatively few leading warriors. These warriors would typically have a shield, a spear and a sword but had very little defensive armor. The warriors were also not organized in phalanx as each fought largely on his own. As a result, the battles tended to be a series of duels from warriors on each side. On the other hand, as people perfected how to fashion iron, the Greeks were able to supply their army with armor. Moreover, the Greeks discovered that fighting in close formation was more efficient. The classical Greek army would comprise of units called hoplites, which were heavily armed with spears and swords. The defensive armor comprised of a plate corslet, greaves, a closed helmet, and a large round shield, called hoplon and from which the unit’s name was derived. The phalanx was characterized by having the hoplites fight in close formation, in a series of rows, where the front row would be able to push the enemy off the field, with those behind able to thrust their spears and added their weight into pushing the enemy. Such was the effectivity of the phanlanx that once a city had adopted it, others had to do likewise in order to survive. The city-states found it convenient to establish various kinds of diplomatic relationship with others. Sparta, as an example, found itself unable to expand its territories further. It directed its attention to forming alliances with other city-states, some of which have other alliances in which Sparta was not included. At the end of the sixth century, Sparta was able to form what we now know as the Peloponnesian league. On the other hand, Athens had founded the Delian league to liberate Greece from the Persians.

Introduction to corporate social responsibility Essay

Corporate social responsibility is a figure of business self-regulation incorporated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms. CSR is a process with the aim to embrace responsibility for the company’s actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere who may also be considered as stakeholders. There are four main parts to CSR fig 1: |Economic |Responsibility to earn profit for owners | |Legal |Responsibility to comply with the law | |Ethical |Not acting just for profit, but doing what is right, just and fair | |Voluntary and philanthropic |Promoting human welfare and goodwill | | |Being a good corporate citizen contributing to the community and quality of life | There are many substitute definitions of CSR. Examples of two are firstly An responsibility, beyond that mandatory by the law, for a business to follow long term objectives that are excellent for society. Secondly concerning how a business administer its business to create an overall constructive impact on the general public So in a brief social responsibly corporate involves †¢ Conducting business in an ethical way and in the interests of the wider community †¢ Responding positively to emerging societal priorities and expectations †¢ A compliance to take action ahead of regulatory confrontation †¢ Balancing shareholder interests against the interests of  the wider community †¢ Being a good citizen in the area

Friday, August 16, 2019

Migratory Behavior of Mallard Ducks Essay

There are four fundamental decisions that most animals make when it comes to mechanisms of adaptation: where to live, how to gather food, how to avoid predators, and what tactics to use to reproduce (Alcock, 1993). Habitat preferences in animals require satisfying their needs (ignoring or actively avoiding others, nutritional needs to perform growth, development and reproduction) at the same time experiencing higher fitness than those unable to settle in the favored habitat. There were also several hypothesis presented which correlates habitat preference and fitness. The seasonal dispersion of some animals like ducks is a costly business in terms of energetic expenses and risk to exposure to predators. On the other hand, considering dispersal cost, animals that do not respond to dispersion pay the price of deterioration due to the inability to adapt to the prevailing ecological conditions. Considering the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis (Ralls et. al, 1979), on ducks in particular, Mallard ducks may have migrated then for the purpose of expanding their genetic pool by interbreeding with Anas rubipes a close relative of the Anas playrynhos. The costly dispersal of Mallards may have been to avoid inbreeding depression primary of which is to circumvent the expression of damaging recessive alleles resulting from the mating of two closely related mates of the same species. This further correlates with the mate competition hypothesis (Moore and Ali, 1984), which states that males tend to fight against one another for mates therefore looser find it more energy efficient to seek closely related species to which they may successfully mate. When mating season is over, male disperses to avoid their daughters when these female become sexually mature. Animals engage into energetically exhaustive activity trying to complete the course of their journey to attain its fundamental goals. As the animal arrives to its destination, the issue of territoriality always comes to mind whenever a new species is introduced into a new environment and every time the visitor interacts with the native. While other animals ignore or tolerate the presence of a new species in its territory, others are extraordinarily aggressive in defending their territory from intruders. Territoriality among animals contributes to reproductive successes or failure to the contrary which further leads to interspecific competition. If suitable breeding sites really are short of supply, then one should be able to find non-territorial, non-breeding, individuals in populations of territorial animals. If this is so, the niche similarity of the visitors to the native may introduce interspecific competition with the available supplies. Territoriality may also influence the reproductive success of these visitors as it was found by Dhondt and Schillemans (1983). Territorial animals may invade the nesting sites of migratory birds which may lead to decreased viability and clutch. The ability of birds to fly and survive various environmental conditions has led to their development over time. Seasonal migration of mallard ducks (Anas platyrynchos) has been one of the intriguing aspects of its behavior. This behavior has been influenced mainly by several factors such as foraging (Heitmeyer, 2006), competition (Mc Auley, et al. , 2004), reproductive behaviors (Hill, 1984) which also includes the preservation of nesting sites, and interbreeding (Brodsky, 1989) and seasonal weather conditions (Ridgill, et al. , 1990 in D. Hill, 1992, Whyte & Bolen, 1984, Poiani & Johnson, 1991). Statement of the Problem From previous articles, it has been reported that Mallard ducks are reoccupying old territories throughout the United States and Canada (Talent, et. al. , 1983). From this observation, it can be inferred that various ecological changes in both habitat and inhabitants may take place. Since mallard ducks in this regard are annual visitors in these habitats, the temporary habitation of previous and new territories may significantly affect native animal species. With the combined hypothesis that Mallard ducks migrate from previously occupied territories due to overlapping conditions which may occupy new territories due to insufficiency of the previous, the study will assess the behavioral patterns of Mallard ducks towards returning to previous foraging territories and establishing new foraging regions (migratory routes) outside of their original habitats, specifically the study will address four major areas of concern. 1. What behavior of the Anas playrynchos determines the suitability of a habitat to be considered sufficient which helps it decide to inhabit previous foraging territories and new regions outside of their original habitats? 2. What behavioral mechanism will the Anas platyrynchos exhibit upon visiting a previous foraging territory and new regions outside of their original habitats if a highly territorial organisms was encountered upon landing? 3. What general behavioral model applies during the interaction of two closely related species (Anas rubipes and Anas platyrynchos) occupying the same niche in terms of: a. Reproductive tactics b. Foraging preferences c. Territoriality 4. What chances that the introduction of less territorial animal may cause significant adaptive stress (competitive stress) to a more territorial species? Hypotheses It is hypothesized that there is no significant differences in the previously reported behavioral mechanisms in Anas platyrynchos that helps it determine to decide on its habitat preferences. Alternatively, Anas platyrynchos establishes new migratory routes due to impending factors such as avoidance of predators, seasonal weather conditions, reproductive tactics and foraging preferences. Else, Anas platyrynchos establishes new migratory route or return to previous foraging areas due to certain conditions such as habitat destruction, scarcity of supplies needed to reproduce, and extreme territoriality between natives and migrants. Experimental Design In order to test these hypotheses, the study will be divided into two phases: the in vivo phase and in vitro phase. At the in vitro phase, groups of experimental populations of Mallard ducks will be placed in a study area which will allow observation of significant behavioral patterns relevant to foraging, reproductive tactics/quality such as mate preference, clutch size, egg size and viability, and interspecific competition. Two species of closely related species of ducks the Anas rubipes (native, will be allowed to acclimatize until such time that they one or two reproductive cycles have been achieved) and Anas platyrynchos (introduced species, will be introduced only after the native have been acclimatized well) will be situated in the same habitat which will be observed for close interaction. Behavioral patterns on mate preferences and competitive exclusion will be observed by on-site observation using a hidden observation platform. Foraging preferences will be looked upon by collection and analysis of droppings from both species. Geographical invasion of feeding territories will be looked upon by assigning quadrat areas which will be initially determined by the territorial preferences of both species of ducks. Territoriality will be measured by the number of times the more aggressive native will disturb the nesting sites of the migrants and the instance that the migrant will be driven away from a specific foraging site. Specific effects of such behavior will be measured by performing initial and final biometry of the two species of ducks. Decrease in biometric qualities from both adult and eggs would mean the inability to adapt into such competitive behavior. Possible effects of migrant foraging on native non-avian species will also be observed by recording the feeding activity of non-avian species living along the vicinity which might directly contribute to the promotion or disruption of the food chain brought about by the introduction of a new consumer. To observe the habitat preference of ducks with is natural behavior in its intact natural behavior, the in vivo phase will be done. Radio satellite transceivers will be wing banded on representative Anas platyrynchos through catch and tag method (including the alpha male) that are about to engage into seasonal journey to trace their possible destinations and stop-over. The result will be compared to previous annual migration data (20 years in succession or more depending on the available information) to establish a pattern supporting the behavioral mechanism that the ducks employ in selecting a habitat which sooth their preference. On site visitation of previously reported migration destinations will be surveyed to confirm habitation of previously occupied regions. Ecological evaluation and mapping of visited areas (stop-over and final destination) will be done and compared with other visited areas for specific pattern. Thorough monitoring of migration paths via remote sensing will be followed to confirm if ever there is a change in the migratory route. Conclusions will be based on the assessment of significant differences between the previously reported data and the novel information. Summary All in all, birds may move to various locations for survival. If the prevailing conditions decrease fitness, migratory ducks may move to different locations to continue to find food, reproduce and avoid predation. When the conditions increase fitness, these ducks will then return to their natal site where they will breed and raise their young. It may be that physical conditions and forces that govern the earth’s magnetic poles, hormonal changes, changing weather patterns or other various factors contribute to the birds’ urge to migrate to their seasonal habitats. For the purpose of this paper, the most important factor to be considered are the consequences to native animals belonging in the same niche brought about by abrupt or gradual changes in migratory routes and the resulting occupation of new or old territories. In the evolutionary perspective, animals are able to adapt into their environment mainly by employing specific behavioral mechanisms that would enable them to perfectly cope. At the event that an animal fails to establish equilibrium with its environment, serious complications arise. The study will better establish significant behavioral patterns in Mallard ducks which enable to blend in and adapt in variable habitats. Such adaptive behavior may serve as a key towards preserving animal species that are in danger of extinction simply because the adaptive behavior is not appropriate for survival. References Cited Alcock, John. 1993. Animal Behavior: an evolutionary approach, 5th ed. Sinauer Associates, USA. 279-379. Dhondt A. A. , and J. Schillemans. 1983. Reproductive success of the great tit in relation to its territorial status. Animal Behavior 31:902-912. Heitmeyer, M. E. 2006. The Importance of Winter Floods to Mallards in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Journal of Wildlife Management. Vol. 70, No. 1. pp. 101-110. Hill, David. 1992. Cold Weather Movements of Waterfowls in Western Europe. The Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 61, No. 1. Feb. , pp. 238-239. Hill, D. A. 1984. Population Regulation in the Mallard (Anas platyrynchos). Journal of Animal Ecology. 53. pp. 191-202. Mc Auley, D. G. , et. al. 2004. Dynamic use of wetlands by black Mallards: Evidence Against Competitive Exclusion. Wildlife Society Bulletin. Vol. 32. , No. 2. pp. 465-473. Poiani, K. A. , Johnson, W. C. 1991. Global Warming and Prairie Wetlands. BioScience, Vol. 41, No. 9. Oct. pp. 611-618. Talent, L. G. , et. al. 1983. Survival of Mallard Broods in South-Central North Dakota. The Condor, Vol. 85, No. 1. Feb. , 1983, pp. 74-78. Whyte, R. J. , and Bolen, E. G. 1984. Impact of Winter Stress on Mallards Body Composition. The Condor, Vol. 86, No. 4. pp. 477-482. Moore, J. , and R. Ali. 1984. Are dispersal and inbreeding avoidance related? Animal behavior 32:94-112. Ralls, K. , et. al. 1979. Inbreeding and juvenile mortality in small populations of ungulates. Science 206: 1101-1103.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Huckleberry Finn Best Intentions

Best Intentions? Can people's best intentions be good enough for you? Is right for people to try to chose your path for you? In the novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, the main character Huck goes through a long journey, using his experience to mature and grow as a person. Huck travels with the African American former slave Jim all over the Mississippi river in hope to get to a anti-slavery state, but they go through a lot of problems heading the wrong way and deeper into the southern states.Throughout the novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, there are characters who have the best intention to help Huck but it is not the best thing for him. The widow tries to â€Å"sivilize† Huck, the new judge tries to improve Pap's moral condition to better him for Huck, and the Phelps family tells Huck to â€Å"do the right thing† and return Jim to his owners. There are characters who have the best intentions for Huck but they are not the best thing for hi m. The widow wants to â€Å"sivilize† Huck, and she wants to teach him manners under a very religious view. Huck says, â€Å"The widow rung a bell for super, and you had to come to time.When you got to the table you couldn't go right to eating, but you had to wait for the widow to tuck her head and grumble a little over the victuals, though there warn't really anything the matter with them† (p. 1-2). The widow makes Huck come on time to eat supper and he has to wait after she says grace for the food they are about to eat. The widow tries to make Huck let go of bad habits, so he can fit into civilization. Huck says, â€Å"Pretty soon I wanted to smoke, and asked the widow to let me. But she wouldn't. She said it was a mean practice and wasn't clean, and I must try to not do it anymore† (p. 2).The widow tells Huck that he shouldn't smoke anymore because its a bad thing. The widow tries to â€Å"sivilize† Huck in a religious way and also by telling what is w rong and right. There are characters in the novel who have good intentions to help Huck but it isn't the best thing for him. The new judge in town tries to fix Pap's moral condition so he could be a better father to Huck. Huck says, â€Å"the new judge said he was going to make a man of him. So he took him to his own house, and dressed him up clean and nice, and had him to breakfast and dinner and supper with the family, and was just old pie to him, so to speak† (p. 6). The new judge didn't know who Pap was at first and he decided to take him in, in order to make him a better man and to be ok with himself so he can be a better father to Huck. But that back fired on the judge, Pap just ended up back in the street and drinking once again. Huck says, â€Å"they tucked the old man into a beautiful room, which was the spare room, and in the night sometime he got powerful thirsty and clumb out into the porch-roof and slid down a stanchion and a good old time; and towards daylight he crawled out again, drunk as a fiddler† (p. 7). Pap sneaked out of the house just to go get drunk and would sneak back in. The new judge wanted to change Pap's moral ways and he wanted Pap to improve in order to be a better person and a better father, but it did not work out. There are characters who try to do the best things for Huck but they never really are what he needs. Aunt Sally keeps Jim away from Huck. Aunt Sally says, â€Å"the runaway nigger†¦ they've got him back, safe and sound, and he's in that cabin again, on bread and water, and loaded down with chains, till he is claimed or sold! (p. 217). Huck tries to steal Jim back from Aunt Sally but she captures him again and keeps him. Aunt Sally wants to adopt Huck in order to â€Å"sivilize† him. Huck says, â€Å"I reckon I got to light out for the Territory ahead of the rest, because Aunt Sally she's going to adopt me and sivilze me and I can't stand it. I been there before† (p. 220). Huck doesn' t want to be civilized, he went through a lot and experienced that civilization is just not good for him, so he can't stand it.Huck is kept away from Jim when Jim is captured by Aunt Sally which makes it difficult for Huck to be on his own and Huck doesn't want to get adopted by Aunt Sally. Throughout the novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, there are characters who have the best intention to help Huck but it is not the best thing for him. The widow tries to â€Å"sivilize† Huck, the new judge tries to improve Pap's moral condition to better him for Huck, and Aunt Sally keeps Jim away from Huck and she wants to adopt Huck. But none of those characters intentions helped or worked for Huck. It was up to Huck to chose his own path.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Formation and Maintenance of Relationship

Describe and evaluate the formation and maintenance of relationships In the field of psychology, the most common relationships are classified into 3 types: * Romantic relationship * Social relationships (Friendship) * Family relationship Romantic relationships Formation: According to the Reward/ Need satisfaction theory of Bryne and Clore in the 1970s, some romantic relationship may develop due to their satisfaction and happiness they achieve when spending time with the other partner. Most people when being asked why they are attracted to their partners would reply back with answers like attentive, attractive, supporting, caring, etc.This suggests that we are more likely to be attracted to people that we are satisfied or gratified to be with. Most stimuli in our lives can be classified into negative and rewarding ones. We tend to search for rewarding stimuli and avoid the negative stimuli. The things that we are most likely going to find rewarding tend to reflect our unsatisfied need s such as the need for company, financial security, an attractive partner and so on. Mutual attractions usually occurs when one meets the other’s needs although one might need company and the other in search for financial security. Maintenance:What keeps relationships going? Some relationship never seem to last and have any passion in while some can be extremely long-lasting and may even last for a life-time. Maintaining relationships was never a one-way process, it involves and requires the interaction of both the participants, each with their own needs and expectations. The partners not only have to serve their own needs but also satisfy the needs of their partners. The social exchange theory by Thibaut and Kelley in 1959: In terms of profit and loss, individuals always attempt to maximise the profit and minimise the effort needed.Rewards that may be received in a relationship can vary from care, money, companionship and sex. The effort needed that is the costs may vary fro m financial investments, time spent and attention given. The reward minus the costs is equal to the outcome or the profitability of the relationship. The stress of a relationship is dependent on the profitability of the relationship. Equilty theory of Walster et al. in 1978: This theory suggests that the most successful and longterm relationships are ones that have a balanced giving and receiving.It had a central assumption that everyone long for fairness in their relationship and when one puts a lot of effort into the relationship but gets little in return, they would feel unfair and inequity would create stress in the relationship, The greater the unfairness and inequity is, the more distress it would create in the relationship. Other theories: Other theories such as the one put forward by Steil and Wletman in 1991 suggests that men and women may judge the equity of a relationship more differently.Studies have shown that when the income is mainly from the male side, the career wou ld become a more important priority and it is usually agreed by both sides. However, when the female earn more than the male, neither partner rated their career as priority. Social relationships: Friendship Interpersonal psychology research object: Psychological relationship between people, is something much deeper than behavior, the relevance and necessity of the law of the behavior of the individual exchanges.Interpersonal theory of psychological research tasks: Is to fully reveal and clarify the general rules and mechanisms of interpersonal development, analyze the theoretical basis of interpersonal figure out individual and personal interaction of individuals and groups, and people in the system of interpersonal functioning explore interpersonal attitudes, social perception, self-perception, psychological control, interpersonal influence, interpersonal attraction, interpersonal conflict and group behavior, interpersonal.To establish interpersonal psychology unique concepts, term inology, category system, to provide a basis for further improve interpersonal psychology scientific theoretical system, accumulation of material for the enrichment and development of psychological theory and methods, this is a long and arduous job. At the same time, but also the interpersonal psychology in China as soon as possible, that is suitable for China's national conditions, after selection – intake – the Chinese way, to establish the actual interpersonal psychology system in line with China's national conditions for reform and opening up.Task of the interpersonal psychological research practice: (1) the right to deal with interpersonal relationships. (2) to adjust the interpersonal relationships. (3) continue to improve interpersonal relationships. (4) the development of new relationships. (5) correct deformity relationships. Interpersonal relations and social relations: (1) interpersonal and social relations are two different concepts, can not be confused.Int erpersonal relationships as a social relationship between the role and any other kind of social relations, is bound by the constraints of the relations of production, but also by other social relations, and thus should be examined in the interpersonal relationships within the social relations. At the same time, we should also see interpersonal relationships is the true reality of social relations phenomenon. 2) interpersonal and objective social relations is generated at the same time, interpersonal outset by the constraints impact of social relations, social relations exist in the relationships among Of course, social relations with the interpersonal concept of two-level has different theoretical generalization force. Emphasize the reality of the relationship between the overall aspects of non-personalized social relations, interpersonal relationships is more individual, personalized to show the reality aspect.Relationships are formed on the basis of the social relations, but not t he same thing. Social relations is the object of sociological research, which on the one hand to study the relationship of the human and material; the other hand, social relations, including the relationship between the ideological, legal relationship, the moral relationship. While interpersonal interpersonal direct psychological relations, it is constrained by social relations, is a reflection of social relations, but it has a certain relative independence.Relationships are a product of social relations: (1) any kind of interpersonal is always social relations. (2) the fundamental nature of human relationships is determined by the nature of the social patterns of social relations of production. (3) changes in interpersonal relationships is determined by changes in social relations. (4) the complexity of the personal relationships is determined by the complexity of the social relations. Necessity of interpersonal Research:Not exist in isolation, the links with the community, is boun d to a variety of relationships, including family relationships, friend relationship, Jacky (students) relationship, the teacher-student relationship, employment relationship, comrades relations, colleagues and leadership and leadership relations. With the thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the process of interaction of these relationships, interaction and communication with others, these relations between different objects will point to different directions.Healthy relationship is to attract and cooperation; but because of the environmental impact of personality factors, psychological factors and other reasons, many people deal with bad interpersonal relationships will inevitably be caught in the contradictions and pain, the relationship between the parties do not have enough wisdom to resolve resulting inner conflict, will be plunged into a crisis of human relationships, even interpersonal psychological barriers, thereby reducing their life happiness index.Important links between interpersonal and psychological health, good interpersonal comes from a healthy state of mind, self-confident, optimistic, calm, fraternity, to help others, humility, tolerance, and so on, these good quality behavior in interpersonal play a very good role in promoting, healthy relationships can also make people relieve stress, calm down, people's personal development, physical and mental health also played a positive role.On the other hand, problems in interpersonal relationships, will be more or less there some psychological problems, even psychological barriers interpersonal, in the interaction between people, they express more conceited, self-esteem negative psychological interference of others, suspicious, sensitive, jealous, resulting interpersonal again and again thwarted. Therefore, to study the psychology of interpersonal relationships came into being.