Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Business report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Business report - Essay Example The cash rate or the interest rate of monetary policy has been stable for the past financial year and half, and the board had already taken some time to evaluate the implication of substantially reducing the rate of interest on the monetary policy. Finally, the Reserve Bank of Australia has done a crucial job in controlling the lending rate by reducing the cost of borrowing. Also. Since the Australian dollar was week against the U.S dollar, the reserve bank operated with favorable monetary policies to prevent the collapse of the Australian Economy. Therefore, the economy is stable and there is a predictable growth in the first half of 2015. The growth will boost investment, the rate of return to commercial banks and employment. One of the most important elements in the performance of any economy is the amount of workforce or the employment status of the population. High level of employment results in a high output of the economy and consequently a high level of development. However, the level of employment is not the only determinant of economic growth, especially when it comes to global markets. The prices of oil have proved to a significant determinant of macroeconomics and research has already pointed out that the increase in the prices of oil is hazardous to global markets. The prices of commodities have been observed to decline and the price of oil has significantly fallen over the last couple of months; which has resulted to a lower level of demand as a result of high level of supply. Interestingly, since oil is arguably the core driver of any economy, lower price of the energy is tipped to strengthen the global output and the rates of inflations are temporarily expected to fall. This study will look to explain the current economic situation in Australia and making a forecast for the rates of cash of the Central Banks, keeping in mind the drop in the prices of the oil in the global market. With the cost of oil falling in the

Monday, October 28, 2019

American Idiot Essay Example for Free

American Idiot Essay The song that I chose to write about is titled American Idiot by Green Day. This song was on Green Day’s album titled American Idiot. This album was originally released in 2004. American Idiot, the song, peaked at number 61 on the Billboard Hot 100. My reason for choosing this song is that it talks about how the media runs society and how people shouldn’t let the media run their lives. The main social issue that is talked about in this song is how the media runs our lives and society. One of the lines in the song is â€Å"Don’t wanna be an American idiot, one nation controlled by the media. † This line refers to how people in America rely heavily on the media for everything. They trust every word that is printed in a newspaper or magazine or said on television without question. People hang on every word that is pumped through the media. I don’t consider this to be a personal problem because it refers to all people being controlled by the media. It is not as if the singer in the song is the only one that the media affects. Media is worldwide ways of letting people know what is going on around them. What Billy Joe Armstrong is saying throughout this song is that people need to realize is that not everything that a person hears is necessarily true and people should not panic just because of what the news says. Green Day is an American rock band that was formed in 1987. the group consists of three members: Billy Joe Armstrong(vocals), Tre` Cool(drums), and Mike Dirnt(bass). In 1988, they signed to Lookout Records and then in 1989 they released their first EP titled 1,000 Hours. However, the band didn’t have much success until it released the album Kerplunk in 1993. After Kerplunk’s success, Green Day proceeded to leave Lookout Records and sign with Reprise Records. In 1994, they released their first major label debut, Dookie. Over the next few years, Green Day would have much success but then decided to take a break in 1996. They returned in 1997. When they returned, they began to work on a new full-length album. This album was entitled Nimrod and was released in October of 1997. This album deviated from their normally pop-punk style of music and gave listeners a variety of music. They didn’t release another album until 2000 when they released Warning which further continued their new sound that they started with Nimrod. After releasing Warning, they were nominated for 8 awards in the California Music Awards. They won all eight awards. The band then continued their success over the next few years. In 2004 the band released American Idiot. And then in 2006 they won the Grammy for record of the year because of the track Boulevard of Broken Dreams which spent 16 weeks at the top of the charts. The lyrics to American Idiot are as follows: â€Å"Dont wanna be an American idiot. Dont want a nation under the new mania. And can you hear the sound of hysteria? The subliminal mindfuck America. Welcome to a new kind of tension. All across the alienation. Everything isnt meant to be okay. Television dreams of tomorrow. Were not the ones whore meant to follow. For thats enough to argue. Well maybe Im the faggot America. Im not a part of a redneck agenda. Now everybody do the propaganda. And sing along in the age of paranoia. Welcome to a new kind of tension. All across the alienation. Everything isnt meant to be okay. Television dreams of tomorrow. Were not the ones whore meant to follow. For thats enough to argue. Dont wanna be an American idiot. One nation controlled by the media. Information age of hysteria. Its calling out to idiot America. Welcome to a new kind of tension. All across the alienation. Everything isnt meant to be okay. Television dreams of tomorrow. Were not the ones whore meant to follow. For thats enough to argue. †

Saturday, October 26, 2019

snow falling on cedars overview :: essays research papers

Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I chose the novel Snow Falling on Cedars, by David Guterson because I have heard from many people that it is a compelling story which truly depicts the inhumanities of racism. Human emotions are intensely conveyed in such riveting detail that one can not read this book without it leaving a permanent mark on their heart. Furthermore, I was not very familiar with the Japanese encampments of the mid nineteen hundreds. I knew that reading this novel would broaden my horizons and lead me into unknown territory. Plot Summary   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A well liked fisherman named Carl Heine mysteriously turns up dead in the small island community of San Piedro Island. World War II is beginning and there is high suspicion of traitors among the islands Japanese immigrants. Kubuo Miyamoto is accused of this crime and is put on trial at a time of high prejudice. Miyamoto and Heine had been childhood friends but in their later years, their was an honorable dispute over land. Many signs pointed to Miyamoto’s guilt, but in the end, the cause of death is determined tragically accidental and Miyamoto is set free after spending three lonely, freezing, winter months in his desolate cell. A secret love affair existed between Hatsue, now Miyamoto’s wife, and Ishmael Chambers, the islands journalist when they were adolescents. They would meet in the dense shelter of the cedar forests where they would prove their lustful love for each other. Hatsue being Japanese and Ishmael being white was not only against all of societies morals, but against everything Hatsue had ever known; her entire culture and history. As tensions boil among the islands natives, the Japanese immigrants were subject to profuse searches, stripped of every priceless belonging, and deported to work camps. Among the confusion, families were torn apart left with nothing but the clothes on their backs. Ishmael and Hatsue were forced apart and Ishmeal joined the army and their efforts against the Japanese. Though many years have passed, Ishmael has never healed from the heartbreak of losing Hatsue and he is still desperately in love with her. Characters Kabuo Miyamoto:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Kabuo is of Japanese decent. He emits an aura of honor, pride, and grace. His   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  deep dark eyes seem to show no emotion. He portrays great physical strength.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  His features are very smooth and angular. His hair is cut very close to his skull. He   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  has a great sense of protection and feels he has a duty to care for his family.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Fin 516 Quiz 1

1. | Question 😠 (TCO C) Blease Inc. has a capital budget of $625,000, and it wants to maintain a target capital structure of 60 percent  debt and 40 percent  equity. The company forecasts a net income of $475,000. If it follows the residual dividend policy, what is its forecasted dividend payout ratio? (a) 40. 61% (b) 42. 75% (c) 45. 00% (d) 47. 37% (e) 49. 74% | | | Student Answer:|   | (d) 47. 37 Equity required (Residual income) = $625,000*40% = $250,000 Dividend paid = $475,000 – $250,000 = $225,000 Dividend payout ratio = 225000/475000 = 47. 37% |   | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: dText: pp. 570-572 – Residual Dividends, Chapter 14 Capital budget $625,000 Equity ratio 40% Net income (NI) $475,000 Dividends paid = NI – (Equity ratio)(Capital budget) $225,000 Dividend payout ratio = Dividends paid/NI 47. 37% | | | | Points Received:| 10 of 10 | | Comments:| | | | 2. | Question 😠 (TCO F) The following data applies to Saunders Corpora tion's convertible bonds: Maturity: 10 Stock price: $30. 00 Par value: $1,000. 00 Conversion price: $35. 00 Annual coupon: 5. 00% Straight-debt yield: 8. 00% What is the bond's conversion value? (a) $698. 15 (b) $734. 89 (c) $773. 57 (d) $814. 29 e) $857. 14 | | | Student Answer:|   | (e) $857. 14 Conversion ratio = Par value / Conversion Price= 28. 5714 =1000/35 Current share price= $30. 00 Therefore, conversion value of the bond= $857. 14 =28. 5714Ãâ€"30 |   | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: e Chapter 19: pp. 770-774 Conversion value = Conversion ratio x Market price of stock = $857. 14 | | | | Points Received:| 10 of 10 | | Comments:| | | | 3. | Question 😠 (TCO B) SA – Your firm has debt worth $350,000, with a yield of 12. 5 percent, and equity worth $700,000. It is growing at a  seven percent rate, and faces a 40 percent tax rate.A similar firm with no debt has a cost equity of 17 percent. Under the MM extension with growth, what is its cost of equity? ( a) 19. 25% (b) 21. 75% (c) 18. 0% (d) 17. 5% (e) 18. 4% | | | Student Answer:|   | | | Instructor Explanation:| A is correct. Instructor Explanation: M & M Extension with Growth – Section 26. 4 (pp. 1011-1015) rsL = rsU + (rsU – rd)(D/S) 19. 25% = 17% + (17%-12. 5%)(350,000/700,000)| | | | Points Received:| 10 of 20 | | Comments:| this is you emailed solution – 4. (TCO B) SA – Your firm has debt worth $350,000, with a yield of 12. 5 percent, and equity worth $700,000.It is growing at a seven percent rate, and faces a 40 percent tax rate. A similar firm with no debt has a cost equity of 17 percent. Under the MM extension with growth, what is its cost of equity? My answer is: (d) 17. 5% rsL = rsU + (rsU – rd)(D/S) 17. 5% = 15% + (15%-10%)(200,000/400,000 I am not sure where you got the 15% number for the rsU or the 200,000 for D or the 400,000 for S the calculations and formula are correct but you used all incorrect inputs so I will give you 1/2 cr edit A is correct. Instructor Explanation: M & M Extension with Growth – Section 26. (pp. 1011-1015) rsL = rsU + (rsU – rd)(D/S) 19. 25% = 17% + (17%-12. 5%)(350,000/700,000) | | | 4. | Question 😠 (TCO B) Firm L has debt with a market value of $200,000 and a yield of nine percent. The firm's equity has a market value of $300,000, its earnings are growing at a  five percent  rate, and its tax rate is 40 percent. A similar firm with no debt has a cost of equity of 12 percent. Under the MM extension with growth, what would Firm L's total value be if it had no debt? (a) $358,421 (b) $377,286 (c) $397,143 (d) $417,000 (e) $437,850 | | Student Answer:|   | (c) $397,143 VTotal = VU + VTS, so VU = VTotal – VTS = D + S – VTS. Value tax shelter = VTS = rdTD/(rsU – g) = 0. 09(0. 40)($200,000)/(0. 12 – 0. 05) = $102,857 VU = $300,000 + $200,000 – $102,857 = $397,143 |   | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: c Chapter 26, pp. 1011-1 015 Debt: $200,000 Equity: $300,000 rd: 9% rsU : 12% T: 40% g: 5% Firm L has a total value of $200,000 + $300,000 = $500,000. A similar firm with no debt should have a smaller valu(e) Here is the calculation: VTotal = VU + VTS, so VU = VTotal – VTS = D + S – VTS. Value tax shelter = VTS = rdTD/(rsU – g) = 0. 9(0. 40)($200,000)/(0. 12 – 0. 05) = $102,857 VU = $300,000 + $200,000 – $102,857 = $397,143 | | | | Points Received:| 20 of 20 | | Comments:| | | | 5. | Question 😠 (TCO A) Which of the following statements is CORRECT? (a) An option's value is determined by its exercise value, which is the market price of the stock less its striking price. Thus, an option can't sell for more than its exercise value. (b) As the stock’s price rises, the time value portion of an option on a stock increases because the difference between the price of the stock and the fixed strike price increases. c) Issuing options provides companies with a low cost method of raising capital. (d) The market value of an option depends in part on the option's time to maturity and also on the variability of the underlying stock's price. (e) The potential loss on an option decreases as the option sells at higher and higher prices because the profit margin gets bigger. | | | Student Answer:|   | (c) Issuing options provides companies with a low cost method of raising capital. |   | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: d Chapter 8, pp. 306-310 | | | | Points Received:| 0 of 20 | Comments:| Companies do not issue Options – they are a trading vehicle of the exchanges – no capital from options go to the firm | | | 6. | Question 😠 (TCO F) Suppose the December CBOT Treasury bond futures contract has a quoted price of 80-07. What is the implied annual interest rate inherent in the futures contract? Assume this contract is based on a 20 year Treasury bond with semi-annual interest payments. The face value of the bond is $1000, and th e semi-annual coupon payments are $30. The annual coupon rate on the bonds is $60 per bond (or 6%).The futures contract has 100 bonds. (a) 6. 86% (b) 7. 22% (c) 7. 60% (d) 8. 00% (e) 8. 40% | | | Student Answer:|   | (d) 8% Quote: 80’07 0. 80 0. 07 N: 40 PV = (0. 80+0. 07/32) ? $1,000 = -$802. 1875 FV = $1,000 PMT = $30 I/YR = 4. 00% Annual rate: I/YR ? 2 = 8. 00% |   | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: d Chapter 23, pp. 917-923 Answer Detail: Quote: 80-07 0. 80 0. 07 N: 40 PV = (0. 80+0. 07/32) ? $1,000 = -$802. 1875 FV = $1,000 PMT = $30 I/YR = 4. 00% Annual rate: I/YR ? 2 = 8. 00% | | | | Points Received:| 20 of 20 | | Comments:| | | | | |

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

India’s Unsung Heroes of the Sports World

The games are starting. It's time to forget the roofs, the bridges and the crap – whether it's coming from dogs or the organizing committee. Indian sports fans can probably tell you Sachin Tendulkar’s birthday, hobbies and favorite music. But ask fans to name more than 5 people who are representing India at the Commonwealth Games and they will struggle. We all know Saina Nehwal and Lee-Hesh. Here are a few more that you may not know. Sharath Kamal (Table Tennis) – The 2006 Commonwealth Games gold medal winner seems to be in a good position to bring home another gold. He's been in good form this year and has displayed the maturity and confidence that all winners possess. Let's also not forget he has been Indian number one for the past seven years. Pictured right. Ananya Panigrahi (Swimming) – She is not old enough to drive a car or even had her sweet 16th birthday for that matter, but this 14 year old will be the youngest athlete representing India in this years games. A medal may be difficult at her age, but you never know. Sushil Kumar (Wrestling) – If you don’t know this man then you need to read the sports pages more often. He just won a gold at the World Championships in Moscow a few weeks ago and seems like a dead cert to win the 66 kg category. A medal is there for the taking, let's hope it’s a shiny gold one. Vijender Singh, Akhil Kumar and Jai Bhagwan (Boxing) – This could be a gold rush for India. In the Commonwealth Boxing Championships in March our boxers picked up 6 gold medals, and there are three guys in the frame to do us proud this time. Top of the pile is superstar and crowd favorite Vijender Singh (Beijing bronze medal-winner), followed by Jai Bhagwan and Akhil Kumar, the Commonwealth 2006 Gold winner and infamously, the athlete whose bed collapsed at the CWG village. One final note: I’ve heard some talk of fans boycotting the games. That would be a disaster. If there was ever a time for fans to get together and support our athletes it's now. The first impression of the CWG has not been good, so let's make sure the lasting impression is a memorable one.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Learn About Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs, Halyomorpha halys

Learn About Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs, Halyomorpha halys I have a peculiar fascination with stink bugs. My affection may be misplaced, however, because some stink bugs are pests of garden plants and fruit trees. One exotic species, the brown marmorated stink bug came to the U.S. recently and the agricultural industry is already on alert. Description: The adult brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, can be confused with other brown stink bugs. To identify this species accurately, examine its antennae for alternating bands of light and dark on the last two segments. Adults are a blotchy brown color, with alternating light and dark markings along the edges of the abdomen. They grow to 17mm in length. In its U.S. range, Halyomorpha halys adults may be observed from spring to September. In the fall, they may invade houses and other structures. Find stink bugs in your home in the fall, and theres a good chance youve got brown marmorated stink bugs. First and second instars appear tick-like, but yellowish or reddish in color. The final three instars (five total) become darker and closer in appearance to the adults. Older nymphs have banded legs and antennae and abdominal markings like adults. Clusters of light green eggs may be found from June to August. If you do find a brown marmorated stink bug, keep the insect in a vial or jar and report the find to your local extension office. This insect has the potential to become a serious agricultural pest, and scientists are tracking its spread. Classification: Kingdom - AnimaliaPhylum - ArthropodaClass - InsectaOrder - HemipteraFamily - PentatomidaeGenus - HalyomorphaSpecies - H. halys Diet: Brown marmorated stink bugs feed on plants by piercing fruits and stems. The long list of host plants favored by this insect makes it a significant agricultural pest if populations get too large. Host plants include a variety of fruit and shade trees, as well as other woody ornamentals and even legumes. Known food sources include pear, peach, apricot, cherry, mulberry, persimmon, and apple trees; Buddleia, honeysuckle, Rosa rugosa, and abelia shrubs; raspberries and grapes; and legumes including soybeans and beans. Life Cycle: The brown marmorated stink bug undergoes incomplete metamorphosis. In the U.S., only a single life cycle occurs per year. However, in its native Asia, five life cycles per year have been observed. As H. halys spreads south, more life cycles per year are likely. Eggs - The female lays barrel-shaped eggs in masses of 25-30, on the undersides of leaves.Nymphs - Nymphs emerge 4-5 days after eggs are laid. Each instar lasts about one week.Adults - Adults fly, and become sexually mature about two weeks after their final molt. The female lays eggs at one-week intervals. She can lay as many as 400 eggs in a season. Special Adaptations and Defenses: Like other cousins in the Pentatomidae family, brown marmorated stink bugs possess glands in the thorax capable of producing malodorous compounds. When handled or crushed, stink bugs release this foul-smelling secretion. Their coloration provides camouflage from predators, such as birds. Habitat: Fruit tree orchards, soybean fields, and other areas where host plants occur, including the home landscape. Range: The brown marmorated stink bug is native to eastern Asia, existing in China, Japan, and Korea. Halyomorpha halys has been detected in 42 U.S. states and several Canadian provinces.   Other Common Names: Yellow-brown stink bug, East Asian stink bug Sources: Regional Pest Alert: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Northeastern IPM CenterBrown Marmorated Stink Bug - A New Exotic Insect in New Jersey, Rutgers Cooperative Extension FS002Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, University of FloridaBrown Marmorated Stink Bug, Penn state University

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Megans Law

Megans Law By: Jim E-mail: Jim_bean79@yahoo.com Megan's Law has had a profound effect on not only convicted sex offenders and prosecutors, but also on the community including real estate brokers and apartment owners. Megan's Law is a collection of statutes that were passed in 1994 in response to the death of Megan Kanka, who was killed by a convicted sex offender who lived across the street from her home. Two of the laws are collectively known as the Registration and Community Notification Law (RCNL) and are composed of the: 1.Registration Law that requires certain sex offenders to register with law enforcement officials, and 2.Community Notification Law, which requires notification of the registrant's presence in the community by the County Prosecutor. The purpose of the RCNL is to assist law enforcement officials in apprehending sex offenders and enable communities to protect themselves from such offenders. What you should do: The law specifically directs licensees to refrain from making any inquiry as to whether registrants live on or near the premises, and not to provide information on notifications from county prosecutors. The law also provides that licensees shall inform the person making the inquiry that information about sex offenders is maintained by the county prosecutor. The insert the following in the predominant size print in the document in all contracts and leases, prepared by licensees: Lease Provision: Megan's Law Statement: Under New Jersey law, the county prosecutor determines whether and how to provide notice of the presence of convicted sex offenders in an area. In their professional capacity, real estate licensees are not entitled to notification by the county prosecutor under Megan's Law and are unable to obtain such information for you. Upon closing, the county prosecutor may be contacted for such further information as may be disclosable to you. Consequently, the Megan's Law Statement must be included in leases ... Free Essays on Megans Law Free Essays on Megans Law Megans Law By: Jim E-mail: Jim_bean79@yahoo.com Megan's Law has had a profound effect on not only convicted sex offenders and prosecutors, but also on the community including real estate brokers and apartment owners. Megan's Law is a collection of statutes that were passed in 1994 in response to the death of Megan Kanka, who was killed by a convicted sex offender who lived across the street from her home. Two of the laws are collectively known as the Registration and Community Notification Law (RCNL) and are composed of the: 1.Registration Law that requires certain sex offenders to register with law enforcement officials, and 2.Community Notification Law, which requires notification of the registrant's presence in the community by the County Prosecutor. The purpose of the RCNL is to assist law enforcement officials in apprehending sex offenders and enable communities to protect themselves from such offenders. What you should do: The law specifically directs licensees to refrain from making any inquiry as to whether registrants live on or near the premises, and not to provide information on notifications from county prosecutors. The law also provides that licensees shall inform the person making the inquiry that information about sex offenders is maintained by the county prosecutor. The insert the following in the predominant size print in the document in all contracts and leases, prepared by licensees: Lease Provision: Megan's Law Statement: Under New Jersey law, the county prosecutor determines whether and how to provide notice of the presence of convicted sex offenders in an area. In their professional capacity, real estate licensees are not entitled to notification by the county prosecutor under Megan's Law and are unable to obtain such information for you. Upon closing, the county prosecutor may be contacted for such further information as may be disclosable to you. Consequently, the Megan's Law Statement must be included in leases ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Definition and Examples of Therapeutic Metaphor

Definition and Examples of Therapeutic Metaphor Definition A therapeutic metaphor is a  metaphor (or figurative comparison) used by a therapist to assist a client in the process of personal transformation, healing, and growth. Joseph Campbell attributed the broad appeal of metaphor to its inherent ability to establish or recognize connections, especially those connections that exist between emotions and past events (​The Power of Myth, 1988). In the book Imagery and Verbal Process (1979), Allan Paivio metaphorically characterized a therapeutic metaphor as a solar eclipse that hides the object of study and at the same time reveals some of its most salient and interesting characteristics when viewed through the right telescope. See Examples and Observations below. Also see: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a MetaphorWhat Is a Metaphor? Examples and Observations Where description is the main function of a literary metaphor, altering, reinterpreting, and reframing are the main goals of the therapeutic metaphor. In order to achieve these, the therapeutic metaphor must evoke both the imagistic familiarity of the literary metaphor and a relational familiarity based on a sense of personal experience. The story itselfthe characters, events, and settingsmust speak to the common life experience of those listening, and it must do so in language that is familiar. An example from a modern fairy tale might be The Wizard of Oz (Baum, 1900), which functions as a metaphor for the common theme of searching for magical solutions somewhere outside the self. The image of a wicked witch, a good witch, a tinman, scarecrow, lion, and wizard all depict aspects of the listeners experience as mirrored in Dorothy.(Joyce C. Mills and R. J. Crowley, Therapeutic Metaphors for Children and the Child Within. Psychology Press, 2001) Extended Metaphors[T]herapists can corro borate the aptness of a metaphor [by helping to] construct a chain, to assist in weaving an elaborate web of correspondences that tease out additional ramifications and add new dimensions. Rather than presenting metaphors of their choosing, therapists can try to emphasize the raw material presented by clients, and, if possible, use the lead established by them to spin out further connections. In this fourth manner, they can exploit a natural aspect of language, lexico-semantic cohesion, as a strategy to densely layer semantic associations in jointly constructed extended metaphor.(Kathleen Ferrara, Therapeutic Ways With Words. Oxford University Press, 1994) The Power of Storytelling[T]he concept of therapeutic story-telling . . . [emphasizes] the power of metaphor to slip past the defences of the conscious mind.Such practitioners have little acquaintance with literary historyotherwise they would surely have recognized that their therapeutic metaphor amounts to little more than a relabelling of the time-honoured genres of allegory and fable. What is new is their highly individualised focus. Therapeutic stories, they maintain, must be constructed specifically to suit the emotional dynamics of individuals.(Hugh Crago, Bibliotherapy and Psychology. International Companion Encyclopedia of Childrens Literature, 2nd ed., edited by Peter Hunt. Routledge, 2004)

Saturday, October 19, 2019

COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS - case study format Essay - 1

COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS - case study format - Essay Example IKEA is a European company and its business and organisational culture differs with Chinese culture. Hence, it has to face multiple hindrances in controlling the Chinese market. Besides, the government’s trade policies for MNCs are another major issue for IKEA in offering lower cost product and hence, it becomes difficult for the company to compete with other domestic furniture manufacturing companies. There are two major problems in IKEA for its China market that includes cross cultural communication gap and government policies. In this process, the primary aim of IKEA is to understand the core Chinese culture which must be blended with IKEA organisational culture. Understanding of local culture is inevitable for IKEA. Therefore, it should develop its internal organisation’s culture and communicational process by implementing integrated marketing communication model. It also needs to achieve higher efficiency of its multinational teams, and IKEA should try to increase the number of Chinese employees to understand and convince target consumer group. Besides, government’s support is also very essential for IKEA so it must increase its activities relating to corporate social responsibility. Introduction Globalization has brought significant changes in human activities and their lifestyles. It has led to accelerate the growth and development of entire world economies and societies. Trade and business activities are one of the most crucial areas that have experienced tremendous growth since last two decades. The increasing global exchanges enhanced the importance of international trade and policies. Besides, the business agreements and treaties have facilitated the international communication and business activities. These reasons have provided greater opportunities to business organisations and hence, they keep expanding their geographical boundaries i.e. in overseas market. However, in this process, multinational companies (MNC) have to count er certain hindrances that affect efficiency of management. Cross cultural diversities and communication gap are the major challenges for MNCs (DuBrin, 2008, p.66). This paper will attempt to analyse a case of a multinational company facing hindrances in managing its international division ion a culturally diversified country. This paper will analyse major factors behind such issues and will provide a relevant solutions and recommendations. Finally, the entire discussions, analyses and outcomes will be concluded. Terms of Reference This paper will provide a description and solutions of problems faced by IKEA in Chinese market due to political, social and business cultural differences. IKEA is a world renowned furniture manufacturing company and it has expanded its market in China. Currently, this multinational company is facing problems in its Chinese market and hence, it has asked to prepare a report addressing the major causes for such issues in China. The company also needs prope r strategic solutions and recommendations to counter these issues facing in Chinese market. Overview of the Situation Overview of Company IKEA (Ingvar Kamprad Elmtaryd Agunnaryd) is a Sweden based, private holding multinational company and it is the largest furniture manufacturer in entire UK and Europe. The company was founded by Ingvar Kamprad during 1943. Initially, IKEA used to sell pens, tables, picture

Friday, October 18, 2019

Reviews of the Articles about Global Problems Essay

Reviews of the Articles about Global Problems - Essay Example Soil, which is composed of organic and inorganic components, is an integral part of terrestrial life and many organisms including humans are greatly dependent on this vast resource. The organic or living components which are constituted by thousands of microbes, fungi, nematodes, mites and gophers play a vital role in maintaining soil health and fertility. The organic wastes that are present in the soil are processed by the soil microflora and the resulting nutrients are made available for the plants. Ground water is filtered and cleaned by the soil matter and soil also helps to retain atmospheric dust and other pathogens thereby contributing to cleaner air. Soil is also a major determinant of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Man-made activities such as plowing and soil changes due to erosion and neglect can result in the release of excessive amounts of carbon dioxide in to the atmosphere. Agricultural practices such as tillage can deprive the soil of essential organic nutrients an d the addition of fertilizer chemicals, pesticides and herbicides further deplete the soil nutrients. The large number of concrete layered on top of the soil in urban areas, heavy machines and pollution cause extensive and at times irreversible damages to soil life. The desert conditions in Africa are mainly due to extensive grazing and agriculture which has resulted in degradation of the top soil. The author further adds that unhealthy soil can also cause several human diseases. The increasing global warming poses a great threat to the biodiversity of the soil which can be adversely affected even with the slightest change in temperature and moisture. The author has also included the views of soil experts Eric B. Nelson and Diana H. Wall who respectively believe that soil... The essay "Reviews of the Articles about Global Problems" analyses eight articles by eight different authors about such global problems as like the effect of increasing carbon dioxide quantities on global warming, threats to soil life from globalization and industrialization, the harm of pesticides to the environment and the effect of technological advancements on humanity. For example, the article â€Å"The hidden world under our feet† by Jim Robbins focuses on soil life and the numerous threats that it faces due to globalization and industrialization around the world. Soil, which is composed of organic and inorganic components, is an integral part of terrestrial life and many organisms including humans are greatly dependent on this vast resource. The organic or living components which are constituted by thousands of microbes, fungi, nematodes, mites and gophers play a vital role in maintaining soil health and fertility. Another article â€Å"A Change in temperature† by Justin Gillis analyses the effect of increasing carbon dioxide quantities on global warming. Recent findings suggest that global temperature change is a more slow process and humans would be able to adapt to these changes. The major issue under consideration is about the sensitivity of the climate to increasing carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Earlier in the 19th century, Svante Arrhenius estimated the earth’s average temperature to increase by nine degrees Fahrenheit, though, now it is likely to be between three to eight degrees Fahrenheit.

Use of Digital Media within Organisations Case Study

Use of Digital Media within Organisations - Case Study Example In the recent years, facing stiff competition in industries and the high need to cut costs while still maintaining efficiency in businesses has seen the rapid growth and development of digital solutions for businesses. A key area in which digital media has greatly been used by the various businesses is communication. Communication is a critical success factor in the business world and hence the development and improvement of digital media such as web videos, availability of e-books and social media have been key turnaround factors for business organisations. In the above mentioned case study involving virgin media, it is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that the use of digital media has a positive rather than negative impact on the performance of an organisation depending on the overall objective for the incorporation of digital media was. Here, the objectives of the study were to raise awareness of Virgin Media HD football packages through online mobile marketing and this was sp ecifically targeting the users of iPhones. The brand basically wanted to use a new, innovative and creative mobile marketing form in a bid to get the attention of football fans browsing the Guardian mobile internet website. Virgin media was working I partnership with an advertising agency, 4th street advertising. The main objective that was to be achieved was to get the information on virgin media HD football channels to a specific target audience which was football fans who owned iPhones. This was done through the execution of a well laid out strategy that involved exposing the target audience to the advertising message and a clear action that encouraged the recipients to learn more about the products and services offered by virgin media. Additionally, the advertisement campaign provided value addition with a calendar sync option that enabled the users with a fixture list of all games to be televised of the English Premier League. The intended purpose was to improve customer loyalt y and give then pride in being virgin customers. The banner bearing the campaign on the website was easy to use and access and it provided users with two calls-to-action. â€Å"Find out more about Virgin Media Football Packages† and â€Å"Sync televised games with calendar†. The call to action that allowed the audience to find out more about various other packages offered allowed the organisation to put across all or other products that the potential clients may not have been well aware of. The results obtained from the implementation of digital media in communicating to the target audience produced splendid results for Virgin Media. The creative execution drove high interactivity with the brand from the target audience. During the quarter to December after the launch of the digitized media in August, Virgin added over 100,000 Sky premium subscribers to reach a total of 725,000. As depicted clearly, clear and simple messages via digital media are a really positive way to communicate to potential customers. I chose to break down the in depth analysis of the effect of digital communication in this above briefly introduced scenario within in topics that depict every step of the process. Goal of Organisation The goal of Virgin media, according to the scenario, was to raise awareness of Virgin Media HD football packages that were in store for avid football fans via mobile advertising and targeting specifically iPhone users. The brand aimed to employ innovative

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Fashion Textile Futures Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fashion Textile Futures Theory - Essay Example The essay "Fashion Textile Futures Theory" draws a distinction between clothing and fashion. Clothes are the media through which cultural ideas flow. Clothing helps us to order our cultural categories; class, status, gender and cultural principles i.e. values, belief and ideas are determined which we hold regarding our world. It is pertinent here to define Culture which may be defined as the way of life, with share abilities, habits, beliefs and customs of people or social groups. It is the entire complex of learned behavior, transmitted to subsequent generations in an ever changing cumulative dynamic way. We may call the artifacts; consumed and produced in a culture, a material culture. These artifacts are produced to express the unexpressed beliefs since the artifacts are understood in particular culture. Artifacts are unconscious and unintentional medium of attitudes, values and beliefs. But Prown says that artifacts are intentional expressions of an aesthetic which is equal in me aning and important to the unintentional expression.4 Cordwell and Schwarz noted that clothes were ignored in the studies of material culture. But later on it was realized that clothes; artifacts, are associated with ‘a complex sentiments’ and it channels the emotions and helps people to move in a ‘culturally appropriate manners. To Schwarz clothing has a symbolic role to play more than any other material objects. It arbitrates the relationship among nature, people and their ‘socio-culture environment.... M. J. & Gruel. L.M. (1981). The Second Skin. Boston: Houghton - Mifflin. 4 Prown. Jules D. et al (1985). "Material cultural studies: A Symposium" Material culture. 5 Cunningham. Anne. Patricia. Lab.Voso.Susan. (1991) Understanding Dress and Popular Culture. Bowling Green State University: Popular Press To Schwarz clothing has a symbolic role to play more than any other material objects. It arbitrates the relationship among nature, people and their 'socio-culture environment.'6 The Study of Blue Denim jeans helps us to understand the statement of Schwarz and particularly his emphasis on the symbolic role of clothing. Blue jeans are all pervasive on the scene of cultural history of America since 130 years. During that period of time jeans exemplified different meanings and messages for the society. It became a symbol of rebellion, an outlet of personal freedom and creativity then it serves as an icon of awareness of fashion also. Change in the style of jeans is actually a sign of change in manners and attitude in the American society. These changes are the subtle but accurate barometers of trends in contemporary popular culture.7 In 1960s the concept of "Jeaning of America" came on the surface to give a jean new role in the American society. It was a great shift in the attitude of the society and particularly in youth when the new clique of rebels; "beatnik", the bohemians, started putting on black sweaters with blue jeans as daily wear to represent the urban intellectual, a dissenter, to rebel against the 'conformist society of the day.' To wear plain jeans and dark colors was to reject the more-is-better, new-is-better mentality of the Organization Man World. 8 By 1967, the youth dominated the sub-culture. Who had

2pages story and 2pages essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

2pages story and 2pages - Essay Example While the Americans politicians could not help but notice the gleaming gold stacked inside the gigantic space ship, the space people also could not keep themselves from noticing that there was only one Asian American in the delegation sent by the US president from the White House. In a group of 20 politicians of high standing, only one Asian American represented the US. This was diversity at its poorest and it did not go unnoticed by anyone who arrived from the star in the space. It was assumed by the space people that Asian Americans were largely considered simple-minded and unrefined people by the white elitist forces in America. On grounds of extensive research conducted by them in recent past, they knew it well that a few white elitist groups acted as a driving force behind the American politics. The US president could not risk their anger or disagreement because they funded his campaigns. Since Asian Americans formed a racial minority in the US in contrast to whites who formed a racial majority, the leader of the delegation from space put forward a very unique proposition before the Americans. He offered remarkable treasures in the form of gold to America to help the politicians address all kinds of domestic catastrophes in exchange for every one of Asian American residing in the US. They did not explain what they intended to do with Asian Americans, rather they just emphasized this deal claiming that the US president is free to accept or decline this offer. They naturally expected some resistance or hostility form the US delegation on introduction of such a nonplussing offer, but to their amazement the Americans threw themselves into hot debate soon afterwards considering the offer very seriously. The gleam of gold masking their good judgment, they ran off to their president with this otherwise outrageous offer to the White House. The president

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Fashion Textile Futures Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fashion Textile Futures Theory - Essay Example The essay "Fashion Textile Futures Theory" draws a distinction between clothing and fashion. Clothes are the media through which cultural ideas flow. Clothing helps us to order our cultural categories; class, status, gender and cultural principles i.e. values, belief and ideas are determined which we hold regarding our world. It is pertinent here to define Culture which may be defined as the way of life, with share abilities, habits, beliefs and customs of people or social groups. It is the entire complex of learned behavior, transmitted to subsequent generations in an ever changing cumulative dynamic way. We may call the artifacts; consumed and produced in a culture, a material culture. These artifacts are produced to express the unexpressed beliefs since the artifacts are understood in particular culture. Artifacts are unconscious and unintentional medium of attitudes, values and beliefs. But Prown says that artifacts are intentional expressions of an aesthetic which is equal in me aning and important to the unintentional expression.4 Cordwell and Schwarz noted that clothes were ignored in the studies of material culture. But later on it was realized that clothes; artifacts, are associated with ‘a complex sentiments’ and it channels the emotions and helps people to move in a ‘culturally appropriate manners. To Schwarz clothing has a symbolic role to play more than any other material objects. It arbitrates the relationship among nature, people and their ‘socio-culture environment.... M. J. & Gruel. L.M. (1981). The Second Skin. Boston: Houghton - Mifflin. 4 Prown. Jules D. et al (1985). "Material cultural studies: A Symposium" Material culture. 5 Cunningham. Anne. Patricia. Lab.Voso.Susan. (1991) Understanding Dress and Popular Culture. Bowling Green State University: Popular Press To Schwarz clothing has a symbolic role to play more than any other material objects. It arbitrates the relationship among nature, people and their 'socio-culture environment.'6 The Study of Blue Denim jeans helps us to understand the statement of Schwarz and particularly his emphasis on the symbolic role of clothing. Blue jeans are all pervasive on the scene of cultural history of America since 130 years. During that period of time jeans exemplified different meanings and messages for the society. It became a symbol of rebellion, an outlet of personal freedom and creativity then it serves as an icon of awareness of fashion also. Change in the style of jeans is actually a sign of change in manners and attitude in the American society. These changes are the subtle but accurate barometers of trends in contemporary popular culture.7 In 1960s the concept of "Jeaning of America" came on the surface to give a jean new role in the American society. It was a great shift in the attitude of the society and particularly in youth when the new clique of rebels; "beatnik", the bohemians, started putting on black sweaters with blue jeans as daily wear to represent the urban intellectual, a dissenter, to rebel against the 'conformist society of the day.' To wear plain jeans and dark colors was to reject the more-is-better, new-is-better mentality of the Organization Man World. 8 By 1967, the youth dominated the sub-culture. Who had

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Setting out the athletics running track and marathon route together Essay

Setting out the athletics running track and marathon route together with measurement of the field events suitable for international competition - Essay Example A running following is assembled around the "standard line" – a hypothetical line that is placed 20cm from the inward path in every path going in the running bearing. The 400-meter length for a track oval is focused around the measuring line. Right slant, angularity and smoothness are fundamental for legitimate running track development. A track must comply with a high set of tolerances, for example, 1/10% greatest descending slant in the running heading. Anything is surpassing the most extreme permissible incline wont permit players to break records on the track. Building games offices is carried out utilizing unrivaled science as part of the request to dependably have legitimate slant, angularity and smoothness with the goal that competitors can perform their best. Security is a necessity which is divulged by building and introducing laser-controlled exactness surfaces that adjust to the largest amounts of tolerance, minimizing hard, delicate and uneven ranges. Precise tolerances are obliged to be qualified for setting sports records. Best tolerances are given to meet the tightest prerequisites in the business. As most general foremen are value persuaded and contract organizations that are sufficiently "great," they are not ready to convey this level of accuracy; most games offices are not fabricated to the insignificant tolerances holders ought to anticipate. Utilization of various bits of state-of-the-workmanship laser-controlled supplies – including numerous laser sorts is utilized to accomplish the most abnormal amount of exactness and tolerance in the business and specialty of running track and marathon development. Persistently, an examination is executed focused around the best innovation, gear, and philosophies. The predominating laser accuracy conveys close flawless evaluating and waste, expanding the execution, life span, and security of the games office. Without uniform

Monday, October 14, 2019

Clash of cultures Essay Example for Free

Clash of cultures Essay In September of 1620 some 100 people ,mostly seeking religious freedom from the church of England set sail seeking the colony of Virginia. They traveled over on a ship known as the Mayflower where they were blown off their course. After a long voyage of 65 days, the refugees landed in cape- cod, present day Massachusetts. The settlers mostly lived on the Mayflower, while they built their new living quarters. A scouting party was later sent out and the new settlers landed in Plymouth Harbor that December. These settlers began to establish the first pure Christian colony of New England. The start of the Plymouth colony began. These settlers are known as Pilgrims. The Pilgrims would now face a dreadful first winter where nearly half of them died due to poor nutrition and housing that faltered in the harsh weather. Many of the pilgrims returned home and the pilgrims that stayed began establishing farms and a fur trade. To establish ground rules for governing they signed an agreement known as the Mayflower Compact. The Mayflower Compact was an agreement that bounded each member of the Separatist group in Plymouth to obey majority rule to promise to defend one another from potential eviction; set a precedent for democratic rule in Massachusetts (The Pilgrims, 1996-3013). The Wampanoag people were the native inhabitants that lived around the area of the Plymouth Colony for some 10,000 years before the Europeans arrived. The Wampanoag people needed help fending off their rivals in the interior. If the Pilgrims would agree to ally with the Wampanoag’s then they could stay. This was the choice given to them by the Wampanoag leader. Soon after the settlement, the Pilgrims came into contact with Squanto a English speaking native from the Pawtuxet tribe. Squanto was later seized by the men of John Smith for the purpose of enslavement. Squanto later managed to escape to find that his tribe had come to parish due to plague. He latter befriended the pilgrims and taught them to plant corn which had become their main crop. He also taught them where to fish and hunt beaver. In the fall of 1621, the pilgrims shared a harvest feast with the Pokanokets tribe, which is the basis for today’s Thanksgiving Holiday (The Pilgrims, 1996-3013). The settlers were on the right course for permanent residency. In 1623, the pilgrims divided the land and only rewarded those who were willing to work hard enough. Due to all the hard work they were able to pay their debt back to the Virginia Company who helped finance the Mayflower and their travels to the new world. They also had the help of William Bradford who was one of the new settlers who set up a stable governmental self-rule. William Bradford ruled with a strong level hand and consulted numerous colonists before making decisions. After attempting to turn the pilgrims against the Pokanoket tribe and trying to increase his power Squanto died. Other tribes were not quite disposed of the pilgrims and their relationship with Massasoit and the Pokanoket tribe. In 1629, English Puritans sought to formalize Massachusetts as a royal colony do to the progression of the Plymouth colony. As the Pilgrims began occupying more land, relations with the Native American tribes began deteriorating. The natives were very unhappy that the settlers were beginning to occupy more and more due to them growing. Thus the King Phillip war began, which would tear apart New England. Phillip was the son of Massasoit and the chief of the Pokanoket tribe. Over 5,000 in habitants of New England were left dead and a third of them were natives. Many woman and men decided to follow the Pilgrims voyage to the new world due to the policies of religious belief by the King. Kind James1 and his successor eventually forced more and more people to follow behind the pilgrims in hopes of finding their religious haven. Another 1,000 puritan refugees under the guidance of John Winthrop came to establish todays Boston in Massachusetts. Between the time period of 1630 and 1640 another 25,000 refugees would follow to come to their religious safe haven. Eventually the pilgrims of Plymouth failed to achieve lasting economic success. Fighting the king Phillips war was rather costly and damaged the already struggling economy of Plymouth. In 1692, King James II appointed a governor to rule over New England and Plymouth was merged into a larger entity of Massachusetts (The Pilgrims, 1996-3013).

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Tourist Motivations to Visit Bali

Tourist Motivations to Visit Bali 2.2 Results and Discussions This section presents the results and discussions of the study, which consists of the results of descriptive data from qualitative approach. It also presents the discussions based on the research findings and relates them with possible reasons based on the secondary data or literature review. The findings are based on data sources from qualitative data conducted by the researcher. The purpose of this section is to answer the objectives of the study, which is to determine the tourist perception towards cultural events in Bali and to explore the motivation of people visiting Bali, especially for its culture. 2.2.1 Level of Interest Level of interest of tourist can be determined as one of the factor that influencing people to choose the particular destination. According to the Rapaports (1975) theory about factor that influencing the customer behaviors which can motivate them to go to the destination. It elaborated through this following topic. 2.2.1.1 Sources about Bali From the in-depth interviews informants conducted, all the informants have ever heard about Bali before. Based on how informants get to know Bali, there are several sources. Most of the informants know Bali from word of mouth from informant’s family and friends. On the other hand, for Indonesian respondent, they know Bali since they were attend school. Beside that, the remaining publicity is from media, like television, books, magazines, brochures; as well as through internet, include travel website. For example informants mentioned that their relatives’ experiences and stories about Bali is one of the reasons that make the respondents go to Bali, below are the statements of informants: â€Å"†¦I will go there. Because my friend told me that the place is nice and the culture is very unique† (French informant/A.4) â€Å"†¦I heard it from my parents, because my parents had their honeymoon there, and they said it was really beautiful island† (Singaporean informant/A.10) 2.2.1.2 Attending Balinese Cultural Event Tourists; who never been and have been to Bali before; indicated that five informants have high interest in attending cultural events in Bali, otherwise there is three informants said that they might be interested in attending cultural events. And the remaining two informants do not have interest in attending cultural events. According to Morgan (1996), the respondent answers of ‘maybe’ could be a huge potential if these respondents can be converted to ‘interested’ respondents. In Morgan’s model for decision making, it categorized into 5 main steps, such as: Problem recognition (don’t know market) Information search (maybe market) Evaluation of alternatives Choice of purchase Evaluation of post-purchase experience As for the maybe market, marketers can use advertisements to create the need for attending the cultural events by sending mails or using media like distributing materials that have information on the cultural events to create their awareness. Findings from interviews by looking at their age group of traveler indicated that most of the traveler that interested in Balinese cultural events is older traveler, whereas four informants said that attending cultural events is one of their purposes of traveling to Bali and the remaining informantsaid not really interest to attend cultural events. One of the informants thought that people who attended the cultural events will have a better understanding about the Balinese tradition, which can see his/her statements below: â€Å"†¦as I told you before I want to learn more about their Balinese tradition through their cultural events† (Indonesian informant/B.6) Other respondents thought that differences of cultural events between their country of origin and Bali makes them interested to attend the cultural event in Bali. â€Å"†¦I’m quite interested with Balinese culture event, because their event is very different with our Japanese cultural events†. (Japanese informant/B.7) Meanwhile for younger traveler; only one respondent interested in Balinese cultural events. Another one informant said that he/she will not attend the cultural events in Bali because he/she does not have any interest in culture. The remaining three informants stated that attending cultural events in Bali is not a main purpose but they might decide to attend when they are in Bali. One of respondent of young traveler stated that she might attend the cultural event because she curious about it. â€Å"†¦but I’m just a bit curious for their cultural dances. So maybe I’ll attend there. (Singaporean informant/A.10) Based on the type of cultural events which respondents have the intention to attend, it indicated that six informants show high interest in their intention to attend a cultural festival rather than cultural dances. They mentioned their interest in cultural festival, such as Nyepi, Ngaben, Temple Festival, and Tooth Filling. Most of them interested to attend the Nyepi festival. For example, some informants describe Nyepi festival as seen below: â€Å"†¦ I heard that during Nyepi, everyone have to stay in their house and doing nothing, only pray to their god. My friend said that Bali is like a death island while Nyepi†. (Malaysian informant/B.3) â€Å"†¦ I heard that it only happens once a year. It is a day that whole of Bali Island remains silent.† (Malaysian informant/A.5) â€Å"†¦As a visitor in Bali, we have to stay at their hotel, because the community asked the visitor who stays in Bali should be obey with the rule of their tradition. No one will be hanging around and there is no activity during Nyepi.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) The other four informants refer to attend cultural dances rather than cultural festival. All of them interested to attend the famous â€Å"Kecak† dance. One of them describe Kecak dance as seen below: â€Å"†¦ the famous Monkey dance which as I know also known as Kecak dance.† (French informant/A.4) 2.2.1.3 Sources about Balinese Cultural Event In terms of the sources on how the informants know about cultural event in Bali, it indicated that most of the informants said that they ever heard about Balinese cultural event from school or college. They said that they have been learned it before. The statements regarding with sources as seen below: â€Å"†¦From school, I knew it from my geography teacher.† (Indonesian informant/A.8) â€Å"†¦I heard from my lecture.† (Malaysian informant/A.5) Beside that, the others also mentioned on how they know about cultural event in Bali such as the recommendations from friends, as well as a print publications like magazines, brochure, and travel books. As for the international tourists, internet and travel agents are the common sources on how they discover about the Balinese cultural events. Discussion: According to Picard (1996), Bali is one of the primary destinations in Indonesia, and well-known as an international destination, whereby most of the respondents said that they ever heard about Bali before. Even some of them do not really know about Balinese culture, but they still recognize Bali as one of the famous tourist attraction in the world. Regarding on how the informants know about Bali, it indicated that word of mouth from friends and family’s references is one of the source as well as influence them to travel to Bali. Based on the Rapaports (1975) and Morgan (1996) theory of social influences on customer behavior, reference group is the most influencing way on how they discover about the destination. Family and friends are called ‘primary reference group’ which is a group who influence the behavior to whom they come into close contact; by sharing their experiences about the destination. Most of them reveal that they want to go Bali because of good experiences from their relatives. Tourism is become the largest economy’s industry in Bali, especially its cultural tourism. A Balinese cultural event is one of major tourist activities as well as a tourist attraction. Therefore most of the informants; both tourists who never been and have been to Bali before; have a high interest in attending the cultural events in Bali. By looking at their age group categories, research findings indicated that older traveler is more interested to attend the cultural events rather than the younger traveler. Younger travelers might decide to attend, but attending the cultural event is not their purpose to go to Bali. On the other hand, older travelers reveal that attending cultural event is one of their main purposes to visit Bali. Firstly, there is a cultural arts-core for a tourist who has interest in culture and seen cultural event as primary element and attends the cultural event is a main purpose. Some of the older traveler categories into this level of interest in attend the cultural event. Secondly, cultural arts-incidental is for a tourist who seen a cultural event less important than other attraction but could be either attraction or an amenity, and attend the cultural event is their secondary purpose. Most of the older traveler is under this category, where they points out that attending cultural events is one of their purpose but not their main purpose. Cultural arts-accidental is for a tourist who view cultural events may not be an attraction but an amenity, but they might be interest in attending a cultural event. Most of the younger traveler is under this category. They might be interested in cultural event, but attending the cultural events is not their purpose. Lastly, Non-cultural art is for a tourist who not interested in culture, they also do not seen cultural events as an attraction or amenity, attending cultural events is not their purpose and they will not attend it. One respondent of younger traveler is under this category, where he/she revealed that he/she does not have interested in any cultural event. Based on the type of cultural events that the respondents have intention to attend, most of them intend in attending cultural festival rather than cultural dances, with Nyepi festival as their preferable festival that they want to attend. According to Ida Bagus Rata (2004), Nyepi festival has made Bali a unique island as well as a day to make and keep the balance of nature. He points out that Nyepi represents the suspension of all activity in the island preliminary to chasing out the evil vibration that has accumulated during the year. This is followed by a day of absolute silence, the suspension of all activity, from which the ceremony takes its name. Nyepi marks the New Year. On Nyepi, the tourists are not allowed to step aside of their hotel. All activity should remain inside the hotel. Even though most of the respondents have not attend this festivals before, but their knowledge about the description on how the Nyepi festival held is relatively in a correct way. Kecak dance is the most well-known dances in Bali (Seminar on Tourism,1977). Therefore most of the respondent who interested in cultural dance mentioned that Kecak dance is the cultural dance that they want to attend. But they can not describe on what the dance about. One of the respondent only can mentioned about Monkey dance which Kecak is also known as. The source of how the respondent knows about Balinese cultural dance mostly is from school and college. The others also mentioned about word of mouth from friends and family; mass media like newspaper, magazines, brochures; internet and also information from the travel agents. Therefore marketers need to take notes of the implication here. If the local or domestic market is targeted, they should create more awareness by using an attractive advertisement materials as well as articles. As for the international market, they should update and maintained the tourism board as well as travel website by spreading the information on cultural events which had happened as well as the future events. Distribution channels and networking are essential for international tourists due to their high dependence on tour operator and travel agents. It is important to create awareness for international tourist, so they can discover the unique points of the unusual cultural events in Bali. 2.2.2 Motivational Factor Beside the level of interest, those theories on tourists’ travel motivation that have been discussed in literature review part is can be helpful in this study to identify the Balinese cultural events as one of the motivational factor for tourist to travel to Bali. Therefore, these following topics have been elaborate to explore the tourist motivations travel to Bali. 2.2.2.1 Reason Tourist Traveling to Bali Based on the reason on why people want travel to Bali, most of the informants revealed that they prefer go to Bali because of the famous beaches there. For example, some of the informants thought that the beautiful beaches in Bali is one of the reasons why they want to travel there, below are the statements of respondents: â€Å"†¦and I also want to see their beach, because many people says that Bali have a beautiful beaches† (Indonesian informant/B.1) â€Å"†¦because Bali have beautiful beaches† (Korean informant/A.2) Beside the famous Bali beaches, the other informants also mentioned that the unique Balinese culture and attractive tourist attraction; friendliness of local people; and their interest in shopping, especially local art market, is also the reasons that affect them to go traveling to Bali. One of the respondents thought that shopping in Balinese local art market is cheap, which can see their statement below: â€Å"†¦because I want to see their famous cheap art market.† (Indonesian informant/B.1) 2.2.2.2 Purpose of Trip As for the tourist that been to Bali, most of the informants reveal that the purpose of their trip to Bali mostly is for holiday with family or friends. One of the informants stated that his/her purpose is for business trips like seminar, training and also research purposes. â€Å"I have a lot of purposes, because there are different purposes each of my trip, such as vacation, training, seminar, and business trip or doing some research there.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) 2.2.2.3 Other Factors that Motivate Tourist to Bali Besides culture, the factors those motivate informants to go to Bali is to experience their natural attraction like beaches or mountains. Most of them revealed that they want to experience the beach activities; like surfing; below are the statements of respondents: â€Å"Their beaches for surfing! I like surfing.† (French informant/A.4) â€Å"The beach, surfing and the people. I heard that is what Bali’s famous for.† (Malaysian informant/A.5) â€Å"Their natural attraction, especially beaches. I like the wave, it’s good for surfing!† (Singaporean informant/A.10) Findings from interviews by looking at their age group of traveler indicated that most of the younger traveler revealed that the factor that motivated them to go to Bali is to experience the beach activities; like surfing; because as they know Bali is one of the famous destinations for surfing. In terms of the other factors that motivate some of the informants, beside culture, is indicated to enjoy the beautiful scenery of Bali; friendliness of local people; shopping activities; for example one of informants thought his/her motivate factors is for relaxation to escape for the daily life routine activities, as seen below: â€Å"I’ll go there for relax and also to release my stress for daily routine, especially from my work.† (Malaysian informant/B.3) Discussion: The push and pull concept provides reasons as to why people travel. According to, Dann (1977), people are pushed into making travel decisions by internal forces. The other is that they are pulled into travel decisions by external forces such as destination attributes. In other words, push motivation is an internal factor from an individual and increases the desire for people to travel, whereas pull motivation is an external factor that influences people travel which cues of a specific destination that pull people to realize the needs of particular travel experiences, such as natural and historic attractions, food, people, recreation facilities, and marketed image of the destination. Therefore by looking at the reasons on why people traveling to Bali; it indicated that most of the informants will go to Bali to enjoy the natural attraction in Bali. Whereby according to Dann (1977), natural attraction in Bali; like their beaches; is one of the major pull factors that influence people to go traveling to Bali. The other reasons that some of the informants mentioned that influence them to go to Bali such as the uniqueness of Balinese culture; the friendliness of local people; and shopping activities. Here, all the reasons also can be categories into the pull factors. According to Crompton (1979), he points out that the pull motivations help illustrate the actual destination choice, which related to this findings on the reasons why people choose Bali as destination to travel. Regarding on the purpose of trip that tourists that been to Bali before, most of the informants said that their main purpose is for holiday or leisure time. One of the informants also stated the other purpose is for business purpose. Coltman (1930) explained the factors that create a person’s desire to travel; purpose of people to travel; which have been categories into two; such as motivation that related to the destination and not related (Coltman, 1930). Here, most of the informants though that holiday as their main purpose, which can be fall under motivation related to the destination, into the leisure time escape category; that makes tourist to escape from their daily activities, or merely to have a new experience. In contrary, for business purpose can be categories into the motivation not related to the destination. It means that it can give people no choice about going to that destination instead of some others. Tourists’ purposes can be determined as push factor. Push factor is an internal energy to an individual and increases the desire for people to travel. Crompton (1979) mentioned that the push factor have been useful in explaining the desire for travel. It includes the desire for escape, novelty seeking, adventure seeking, dream fulfillment, rest and relaxation, health and fitness, prestige, and socialization. According to the findings, most of the informants reveal that their push factor is to enjoy the holiday with family and friends, which can be categories into the desire for escape, as well as socialization. By looking at the other factors, beside culture, that motivate the informants to visit Bali, such as to enjoy the beautiful scenery of Bali; to relax with friends and family; the friendliness of local people; and shopping activities. According to Gahan and Martin (1993) and Mohr et al. (1993), the informants’ motivations for people visit Bali mostly for escape; inverse in routine daily life activities by enjoying the scenery. It followed by socialization and family togetherness (enjoying themselves being with family and friends); excitement (surfing) and event novelty (shopping). Attending cultural events is under the event novelty, where tourist is experiencing something new and different things because of the uniqueness. 2.2.3 Tourists perception Basically, tourist perception is related to motivation tourist, which can influence traveler’s decision making to travel to the particular destination. To prove that there is a connection between tourist perception and motivation factors, this study explored the various tourist perceptions towards Bali as a tourist destination, as well as their perceptions about Balinese cultural events. 2.2.3.1 Perception about Bali In terms of tourist’s perception about Bali, most of the informants frequently called Bali as a beautiful island, which famous and well-known as international destination. They also stated that Bali is a nice place for relaxation. Some of the informants also thought about Bali with their friendly local people and the wide variety of tourist activities; such as surfing; where some informants mentioned that Bali is famous as surfing destination in the world. Below are the informants’ statements: â€Å"In my opinion, Bali is the island that has been notified by international tourist as one of the beautiful Islands in the world. It is famous as one of the best surfing destination in the world.† (French informant/A.4) â€Å"To me, Bali is a surfing paradise,†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Malaysian informant/A.5) Beside that, some of the informants comments about Bali as an island that rich in culture and historical background, as seen below: â€Å"I heard that there’s also a lot of history and tales about the Island, which also famous with their uniqueness of culture.† (Malaysian informant/A.5) â€Å"I think Bali is very unique, especially their culture with a strong tradition; where everybody who stays in Bali should obey to their tradition† (Indonesian informant/ B.6) The uniqueness of Balinese art and handicraft; with cheaper price in the local art market; as some informants thought that Bali as shopping spree paradise. Below are their statements: â€Å"Bali has their own beautiful handicraft with their unique design.† (Indonesian informant/B.1) â€Å"I love it, like for shopping it’s very cheap there, especially their art traditional market.† (Indonesian informant/B.9) By looking at the age of informants, most of the older traveler indicates that their opinion about Bali as a nice place for relaxing from the daily life routine, as they thought Bali is a peaceful place. In contrary, for younger traveler, their perception about Bali is an exciting destination, with a lot of activities that they can experience there; doing something stimulating; especially their beach activities. Some of younger traveler thought that beaches in Bali are fantastic and a one of the famous destination for surfing activities. 2.2.3.2 Perception about Balinese Cultural Event In terms of the perceptions of tourists toward cultural event, most of the informants revealed that Balinese cultural event has a unique attraction which very attractive. Some of the informants stated that the cultural event in Bali is unique because different with any other culture; especially for foreign tourist, whereby they revealed that it different between Balinese culture and the culture in their country of origin; below are the statements of informants: â€Å"It’s very unique, and quite different with Malaysian culture, especially their festival, like Nyepi.† (Malaysian informant/B.3) â€Å"†¦as I know their culture is very interesting and a lot of traditional dance and festival that very different from my country.† (French informant/A.4) Some of the informants also mentioned other perceptions about Balinese cultural event have a strong connection with their belief or religion, as well as their tradition, which make their cultural events’ as a sacral and very spiritual (mystic). â€Å"Their cultural event is very religious and sacral. Whatever it is, dances or festivals, they always connected with their religion and beliefs.† (Indonesian informant/B.1) â€Å"I think it also a bit mystic.† (Indonesian informant/B.9) â€Å"I felt a bit freaky because it’s very mystic as well as magical.† (Singaporean informant/A.10) Other informants indicated on how the Balinese community performs’ the cultural events in Bali. Some of them thought that the cultural event, especially Balinese cultural dance, is very attractive, energetic and also powerful. â€Å"I think it’s very beautiful, and also the performance was very energetic and powerful!† (Indonesian informant/B.9) â€Å"I think it’s quite interesting and energetic†¦. and they dance with the powerful music.† (Singaporean informant/A.10) For the cultural festival, one informant commented on the way they celebrate it which is family-oriented. â€Å"In my opinion, it’s very family-oriented; it’s good, because even though they don’t have enough money, the Balinese community will be collecting money from their big family to hold their tradition as cultural event.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) Discussion: According to the findings, the tourists’ perceptions towards Bali as one of the most enchanting and well-known travel destination in the world, because of the physical beauty of the island and its natural attraction like their nice beaches. According to Picard (1996), therefore Bali is seen by tourists as the â€Å"Ultimate Island†. Other than the beauty of their natural attraction, some of the informants also revealed that Bali as an island with rich of culture and strong religious tradition. For that reason, Bali is also known as the â€Å"Island of God†, where Hinduism belief influences most of the cultural aspect in Balinese community (Picard, 1996). The tourists’ perception toward Bali is predominantly characterized by the reasons on why people traveling to Bali; and factors that motivates them. Based on Crompton (1979), it shows that there is a connection between the tourist perception about a destination and tourist motivations to travel to the destination. He points out that tourist perception on the particular destination can influence traveler’s decision making in choosing a destination. Therefore tourists’ perception about Bali also can be categorized as the Pull factors based on Dann’s theory (Dann,1977). Regarding the tourists’ perception toward the Balinese cultural events in general, the study indicates that most of informants thought that Balinese cultural event is attractive and very unique, which different with other culture. Other than the uniqueness of cultural event in Bali, some of the informants thought that Balinese cultural events have a strong connection with their religion and spiritual indeed. According to Picard (1996), the cultural and religious are interwoven in Bali. He also stated that tourism in Bali cannot be conceived apart from Balinese culture. In fact, tourism is become the largest economy’s industry in Bali, with cultural tourism is one of the major aspects that contributed to the industry. In terms of the perceptions’ towards characteristics of Balinese cultural events, most of the informants described the cultural dance in Bali is energetic and powerful; and for the cultural festival some of the informants thought that it is family-oriented. By looking at the tourists’ perceptions about cultural events shows the level of understanding and knowledge of the informants toward the Balinese cultural events. Even they do not have a clear perspective in terms of knowledge, but the study shows the good opinion toward Balinese cultural events. Based on the Gahan and Martin (1993), the tourist perceptions’ on a particular event can influence tourist behavior for attending the events. This study shows that good perceptions’ of tourist toward Balinese cultural event will influence them to attend the cultural events; where majority of the informants indicates their interest to attend the cultural event in Bali. 2.2.4 Tourist experience Motivation tourist is related to their intention of visiting the particular destination, which also influence by their perception toward the destination. Tourist experienced the destination to meets their expectation. This can be determined by knowing how their travel behavior during the trip, such as their satisfaction level, destination that they visited, as well as the frequency of visiting Bali. 2.2.4.1 Satisfaction of Trip From the qualitative study conducted to the informants that been to Bali before, all of the informant shows that they have a high satisfaction level while their trip to Bali. Most of the informants reveal that they enjoy the scenery and tourist attractions in Bali, especially the scenery of beaches. â€Å"Yes, because the scenery and the beach is very attractive. I really enjoy it.† (Indonesian informant/A.8) â€Å"I really enjoyed it with my friends and family, especially when I looked at the scenery during sunset! It’s really beautiful.† (Indonesian informant/B.9) Other than that, one of the informants thought that he/she satisfied with the trip because of the price is cheap, like for accommodation, as well as public transportation. â€Å"And my trip is very satisfied! Because it’s very cheap there, the air is fresh and no pollution! The accommodation is also cheap. I stayed near by the Nusa Dua beach. For the transportation, the taxi rate is so cheap.† (Japanese informant/B.7) 2.2.4.2 Destination Visited In terms of the destinations visited, the study indicated that Kuta area is the most popular destination for tourist. Beside that, some of the informants stated that Ubud, Nusa Dua, and Kintamani, as the other destinations that they visited during the trip. Denpasar is the main gateways in Bali; where known as the place of Ngurah Rai International airport of Bali; therefore most of the informants mentioned Denpasar as one of the place that they have been visited. 2.2.4.3 Experience for Attending Cultural Event By looking at the tourists’ experience for attending the cultural events, from five informants, four informants had been attend the cultural event in Bali, and only one informant that did not attend. Most of the informants; that had been attend it before; reveals that they watched the performance in Ubud and Kuta area. â€Å"I watched the dances during night in Ubud.† (Japanese informant/B.7) â€Å"I watched it near by my hotel in Kuta, and it’s very fantastic!† (Indonesian informant/B.9) The most cultural event that had been attended is Kecak dance, and followed by Pendet and Barong dance for the cultural dances. For the cultural festivals and ceremonies, some of the informants mentioned that they have been attending the Ngaben festivals. Whereby, one of the informants reveals that he/she had been attending both of the cultural dances and cultural festivals. â€Å"I have seen Ngaben ceremony and some of their cultural dances, like Kecak and Pendet. Kecak is very attractive dance; there is a meaning behind it. One of the interesting parts is their group cooperation.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) 2.2.4.4 Frequency of Visiting Bali Based on the frequency of visiting Bali, most of the informants stated that it is their first time going to Bali. Whereas one of the informants stated that he/she has gone to Bali for more than twice, at least 4 times a year. â€Å"Not really regularly, but I’ll go there at least 4 times a year.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) By looking at the intention for tourist that never been to Bali before, all the informants reveal that they have an intention for planning to visit Bali someday. Some of them stated that they will visit Bali when they already have enough money to go there. â€Å"I have to see my saving first.† (Korean informant/A.2) â€Å"Yes, when I have enough money, surely I’ll go there. (Indonesian informant/B.1) From the qualitative study, i Tourist Motivations to Visit Bali Tourist Motivations to Visit Bali 2.2 Results and Discussions This section presents the results and discussions of the study, which consists of the results of descriptive data from qualitative approach. It also presents the discussions based on the research findings and relates them with possible reasons based on the secondary data or literature review. The findings are based on data sources from qualitative data conducted by the researcher. The purpose of this section is to answer the objectives of the study, which is to determine the tourist perception towards cultural events in Bali and to explore the motivation of people visiting Bali, especially for its culture. 2.2.1 Level of Interest Level of interest of tourist can be determined as one of the factor that influencing people to choose the particular destination. According to the Rapaports (1975) theory about factor that influencing the customer behaviors which can motivate them to go to the destination. It elaborated through this following topic. 2.2.1.1 Sources about Bali From the in-depth interviews informants conducted, all the informants have ever heard about Bali before. Based on how informants get to know Bali, there are several sources. Most of the informants know Bali from word of mouth from informant’s family and friends. On the other hand, for Indonesian respondent, they know Bali since they were attend school. Beside that, the remaining publicity is from media, like television, books, magazines, brochures; as well as through internet, include travel website. For example informants mentioned that their relatives’ experiences and stories about Bali is one of the reasons that make the respondents go to Bali, below are the statements of informants: â€Å"†¦I will go there. Because my friend told me that the place is nice and the culture is very unique† (French informant/A.4) â€Å"†¦I heard it from my parents, because my parents had their honeymoon there, and they said it was really beautiful island† (Singaporean informant/A.10) 2.2.1.2 Attending Balinese Cultural Event Tourists; who never been and have been to Bali before; indicated that five informants have high interest in attending cultural events in Bali, otherwise there is three informants said that they might be interested in attending cultural events. And the remaining two informants do not have interest in attending cultural events. According to Morgan (1996), the respondent answers of ‘maybe’ could be a huge potential if these respondents can be converted to ‘interested’ respondents. In Morgan’s model for decision making, it categorized into 5 main steps, such as: Problem recognition (don’t know market) Information search (maybe market) Evaluation of alternatives Choice of purchase Evaluation of post-purchase experience As for the maybe market, marketers can use advertisements to create the need for attending the cultural events by sending mails or using media like distributing materials that have information on the cultural events to create their awareness. Findings from interviews by looking at their age group of traveler indicated that most of the traveler that interested in Balinese cultural events is older traveler, whereas four informants said that attending cultural events is one of their purposes of traveling to Bali and the remaining informantsaid not really interest to attend cultural events. One of the informants thought that people who attended the cultural events will have a better understanding about the Balinese tradition, which can see his/her statements below: â€Å"†¦as I told you before I want to learn more about their Balinese tradition through their cultural events† (Indonesian informant/B.6) Other respondents thought that differences of cultural events between their country of origin and Bali makes them interested to attend the cultural event in Bali. â€Å"†¦I’m quite interested with Balinese culture event, because their event is very different with our Japanese cultural events†. (Japanese informant/B.7) Meanwhile for younger traveler; only one respondent interested in Balinese cultural events. Another one informant said that he/she will not attend the cultural events in Bali because he/she does not have any interest in culture. The remaining three informants stated that attending cultural events in Bali is not a main purpose but they might decide to attend when they are in Bali. One of respondent of young traveler stated that she might attend the cultural event because she curious about it. â€Å"†¦but I’m just a bit curious for their cultural dances. So maybe I’ll attend there. (Singaporean informant/A.10) Based on the type of cultural events which respondents have the intention to attend, it indicated that six informants show high interest in their intention to attend a cultural festival rather than cultural dances. They mentioned their interest in cultural festival, such as Nyepi, Ngaben, Temple Festival, and Tooth Filling. Most of them interested to attend the Nyepi festival. For example, some informants describe Nyepi festival as seen below: â€Å"†¦ I heard that during Nyepi, everyone have to stay in their house and doing nothing, only pray to their god. My friend said that Bali is like a death island while Nyepi†. (Malaysian informant/B.3) â€Å"†¦ I heard that it only happens once a year. It is a day that whole of Bali Island remains silent.† (Malaysian informant/A.5) â€Å"†¦As a visitor in Bali, we have to stay at their hotel, because the community asked the visitor who stays in Bali should be obey with the rule of their tradition. No one will be hanging around and there is no activity during Nyepi.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) The other four informants refer to attend cultural dances rather than cultural festival. All of them interested to attend the famous â€Å"Kecak† dance. One of them describe Kecak dance as seen below: â€Å"†¦ the famous Monkey dance which as I know also known as Kecak dance.† (French informant/A.4) 2.2.1.3 Sources about Balinese Cultural Event In terms of the sources on how the informants know about cultural event in Bali, it indicated that most of the informants said that they ever heard about Balinese cultural event from school or college. They said that they have been learned it before. The statements regarding with sources as seen below: â€Å"†¦From school, I knew it from my geography teacher.† (Indonesian informant/A.8) â€Å"†¦I heard from my lecture.† (Malaysian informant/A.5) Beside that, the others also mentioned on how they know about cultural event in Bali such as the recommendations from friends, as well as a print publications like magazines, brochure, and travel books. As for the international tourists, internet and travel agents are the common sources on how they discover about the Balinese cultural events. Discussion: According to Picard (1996), Bali is one of the primary destinations in Indonesia, and well-known as an international destination, whereby most of the respondents said that they ever heard about Bali before. Even some of them do not really know about Balinese culture, but they still recognize Bali as one of the famous tourist attraction in the world. Regarding on how the informants know about Bali, it indicated that word of mouth from friends and family’s references is one of the source as well as influence them to travel to Bali. Based on the Rapaports (1975) and Morgan (1996) theory of social influences on customer behavior, reference group is the most influencing way on how they discover about the destination. Family and friends are called ‘primary reference group’ which is a group who influence the behavior to whom they come into close contact; by sharing their experiences about the destination. Most of them reveal that they want to go Bali because of good experiences from their relatives. Tourism is become the largest economy’s industry in Bali, especially its cultural tourism. A Balinese cultural event is one of major tourist activities as well as a tourist attraction. Therefore most of the informants; both tourists who never been and have been to Bali before; have a high interest in attending the cultural events in Bali. By looking at their age group categories, research findings indicated that older traveler is more interested to attend the cultural events rather than the younger traveler. Younger travelers might decide to attend, but attending the cultural event is not their purpose to go to Bali. On the other hand, older travelers reveal that attending cultural event is one of their main purposes to visit Bali. Firstly, there is a cultural arts-core for a tourist who has interest in culture and seen cultural event as primary element and attends the cultural event is a main purpose. Some of the older traveler categories into this level of interest in attend the cultural event. Secondly, cultural arts-incidental is for a tourist who seen a cultural event less important than other attraction but could be either attraction or an amenity, and attend the cultural event is their secondary purpose. Most of the older traveler is under this category, where they points out that attending cultural events is one of their purpose but not their main purpose. Cultural arts-accidental is for a tourist who view cultural events may not be an attraction but an amenity, but they might be interest in attending a cultural event. Most of the younger traveler is under this category. They might be interested in cultural event, but attending the cultural events is not their purpose. Lastly, Non-cultural art is for a tourist who not interested in culture, they also do not seen cultural events as an attraction or amenity, attending cultural events is not their purpose and they will not attend it. One respondent of younger traveler is under this category, where he/she revealed that he/she does not have interested in any cultural event. Based on the type of cultural events that the respondents have intention to attend, most of them intend in attending cultural festival rather than cultural dances, with Nyepi festival as their preferable festival that they want to attend. According to Ida Bagus Rata (2004), Nyepi festival has made Bali a unique island as well as a day to make and keep the balance of nature. He points out that Nyepi represents the suspension of all activity in the island preliminary to chasing out the evil vibration that has accumulated during the year. This is followed by a day of absolute silence, the suspension of all activity, from which the ceremony takes its name. Nyepi marks the New Year. On Nyepi, the tourists are not allowed to step aside of their hotel. All activity should remain inside the hotel. Even though most of the respondents have not attend this festivals before, but their knowledge about the description on how the Nyepi festival held is relatively in a correct way. Kecak dance is the most well-known dances in Bali (Seminar on Tourism,1977). Therefore most of the respondent who interested in cultural dance mentioned that Kecak dance is the cultural dance that they want to attend. But they can not describe on what the dance about. One of the respondent only can mentioned about Monkey dance which Kecak is also known as. The source of how the respondent knows about Balinese cultural dance mostly is from school and college. The others also mentioned about word of mouth from friends and family; mass media like newspaper, magazines, brochures; internet and also information from the travel agents. Therefore marketers need to take notes of the implication here. If the local or domestic market is targeted, they should create more awareness by using an attractive advertisement materials as well as articles. As for the international market, they should update and maintained the tourism board as well as travel website by spreading the information on cultural events which had happened as well as the future events. Distribution channels and networking are essential for international tourists due to their high dependence on tour operator and travel agents. It is important to create awareness for international tourist, so they can discover the unique points of the unusual cultural events in Bali. 2.2.2 Motivational Factor Beside the level of interest, those theories on tourists’ travel motivation that have been discussed in literature review part is can be helpful in this study to identify the Balinese cultural events as one of the motivational factor for tourist to travel to Bali. Therefore, these following topics have been elaborate to explore the tourist motivations travel to Bali. 2.2.2.1 Reason Tourist Traveling to Bali Based on the reason on why people want travel to Bali, most of the informants revealed that they prefer go to Bali because of the famous beaches there. For example, some of the informants thought that the beautiful beaches in Bali is one of the reasons why they want to travel there, below are the statements of respondents: â€Å"†¦and I also want to see their beach, because many people says that Bali have a beautiful beaches† (Indonesian informant/B.1) â€Å"†¦because Bali have beautiful beaches† (Korean informant/A.2) Beside the famous Bali beaches, the other informants also mentioned that the unique Balinese culture and attractive tourist attraction; friendliness of local people; and their interest in shopping, especially local art market, is also the reasons that affect them to go traveling to Bali. One of the respondents thought that shopping in Balinese local art market is cheap, which can see their statement below: â€Å"†¦because I want to see their famous cheap art market.† (Indonesian informant/B.1) 2.2.2.2 Purpose of Trip As for the tourist that been to Bali, most of the informants reveal that the purpose of their trip to Bali mostly is for holiday with family or friends. One of the informants stated that his/her purpose is for business trips like seminar, training and also research purposes. â€Å"I have a lot of purposes, because there are different purposes each of my trip, such as vacation, training, seminar, and business trip or doing some research there.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) 2.2.2.3 Other Factors that Motivate Tourist to Bali Besides culture, the factors those motivate informants to go to Bali is to experience their natural attraction like beaches or mountains. Most of them revealed that they want to experience the beach activities; like surfing; below are the statements of respondents: â€Å"Their beaches for surfing! I like surfing.† (French informant/A.4) â€Å"The beach, surfing and the people. I heard that is what Bali’s famous for.† (Malaysian informant/A.5) â€Å"Their natural attraction, especially beaches. I like the wave, it’s good for surfing!† (Singaporean informant/A.10) Findings from interviews by looking at their age group of traveler indicated that most of the younger traveler revealed that the factor that motivated them to go to Bali is to experience the beach activities; like surfing; because as they know Bali is one of the famous destinations for surfing. In terms of the other factors that motivate some of the informants, beside culture, is indicated to enjoy the beautiful scenery of Bali; friendliness of local people; shopping activities; for example one of informants thought his/her motivate factors is for relaxation to escape for the daily life routine activities, as seen below: â€Å"I’ll go there for relax and also to release my stress for daily routine, especially from my work.† (Malaysian informant/B.3) Discussion: The push and pull concept provides reasons as to why people travel. According to, Dann (1977), people are pushed into making travel decisions by internal forces. The other is that they are pulled into travel decisions by external forces such as destination attributes. In other words, push motivation is an internal factor from an individual and increases the desire for people to travel, whereas pull motivation is an external factor that influences people travel which cues of a specific destination that pull people to realize the needs of particular travel experiences, such as natural and historic attractions, food, people, recreation facilities, and marketed image of the destination. Therefore by looking at the reasons on why people traveling to Bali; it indicated that most of the informants will go to Bali to enjoy the natural attraction in Bali. Whereby according to Dann (1977), natural attraction in Bali; like their beaches; is one of the major pull factors that influence people to go traveling to Bali. The other reasons that some of the informants mentioned that influence them to go to Bali such as the uniqueness of Balinese culture; the friendliness of local people; and shopping activities. Here, all the reasons also can be categories into the pull factors. According to Crompton (1979), he points out that the pull motivations help illustrate the actual destination choice, which related to this findings on the reasons why people choose Bali as destination to travel. Regarding on the purpose of trip that tourists that been to Bali before, most of the informants said that their main purpose is for holiday or leisure time. One of the informants also stated the other purpose is for business purpose. Coltman (1930) explained the factors that create a person’s desire to travel; purpose of people to travel; which have been categories into two; such as motivation that related to the destination and not related (Coltman, 1930). Here, most of the informants though that holiday as their main purpose, which can be fall under motivation related to the destination, into the leisure time escape category; that makes tourist to escape from their daily activities, or merely to have a new experience. In contrary, for business purpose can be categories into the motivation not related to the destination. It means that it can give people no choice about going to that destination instead of some others. Tourists’ purposes can be determined as push factor. Push factor is an internal energy to an individual and increases the desire for people to travel. Crompton (1979) mentioned that the push factor have been useful in explaining the desire for travel. It includes the desire for escape, novelty seeking, adventure seeking, dream fulfillment, rest and relaxation, health and fitness, prestige, and socialization. According to the findings, most of the informants reveal that their push factor is to enjoy the holiday with family and friends, which can be categories into the desire for escape, as well as socialization. By looking at the other factors, beside culture, that motivate the informants to visit Bali, such as to enjoy the beautiful scenery of Bali; to relax with friends and family; the friendliness of local people; and shopping activities. According to Gahan and Martin (1993) and Mohr et al. (1993), the informants’ motivations for people visit Bali mostly for escape; inverse in routine daily life activities by enjoying the scenery. It followed by socialization and family togetherness (enjoying themselves being with family and friends); excitement (surfing) and event novelty (shopping). Attending cultural events is under the event novelty, where tourist is experiencing something new and different things because of the uniqueness. 2.2.3 Tourists perception Basically, tourist perception is related to motivation tourist, which can influence traveler’s decision making to travel to the particular destination. To prove that there is a connection between tourist perception and motivation factors, this study explored the various tourist perceptions towards Bali as a tourist destination, as well as their perceptions about Balinese cultural events. 2.2.3.1 Perception about Bali In terms of tourist’s perception about Bali, most of the informants frequently called Bali as a beautiful island, which famous and well-known as international destination. They also stated that Bali is a nice place for relaxation. Some of the informants also thought about Bali with their friendly local people and the wide variety of tourist activities; such as surfing; where some informants mentioned that Bali is famous as surfing destination in the world. Below are the informants’ statements: â€Å"In my opinion, Bali is the island that has been notified by international tourist as one of the beautiful Islands in the world. It is famous as one of the best surfing destination in the world.† (French informant/A.4) â€Å"To me, Bali is a surfing paradise,†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Malaysian informant/A.5) Beside that, some of the informants comments about Bali as an island that rich in culture and historical background, as seen below: â€Å"I heard that there’s also a lot of history and tales about the Island, which also famous with their uniqueness of culture.† (Malaysian informant/A.5) â€Å"I think Bali is very unique, especially their culture with a strong tradition; where everybody who stays in Bali should obey to their tradition† (Indonesian informant/ B.6) The uniqueness of Balinese art and handicraft; with cheaper price in the local art market; as some informants thought that Bali as shopping spree paradise. Below are their statements: â€Å"Bali has their own beautiful handicraft with their unique design.† (Indonesian informant/B.1) â€Å"I love it, like for shopping it’s very cheap there, especially their art traditional market.† (Indonesian informant/B.9) By looking at the age of informants, most of the older traveler indicates that their opinion about Bali as a nice place for relaxing from the daily life routine, as they thought Bali is a peaceful place. In contrary, for younger traveler, their perception about Bali is an exciting destination, with a lot of activities that they can experience there; doing something stimulating; especially their beach activities. Some of younger traveler thought that beaches in Bali are fantastic and a one of the famous destination for surfing activities. 2.2.3.2 Perception about Balinese Cultural Event In terms of the perceptions of tourists toward cultural event, most of the informants revealed that Balinese cultural event has a unique attraction which very attractive. Some of the informants stated that the cultural event in Bali is unique because different with any other culture; especially for foreign tourist, whereby they revealed that it different between Balinese culture and the culture in their country of origin; below are the statements of informants: â€Å"It’s very unique, and quite different with Malaysian culture, especially their festival, like Nyepi.† (Malaysian informant/B.3) â€Å"†¦as I know their culture is very interesting and a lot of traditional dance and festival that very different from my country.† (French informant/A.4) Some of the informants also mentioned other perceptions about Balinese cultural event have a strong connection with their belief or religion, as well as their tradition, which make their cultural events’ as a sacral and very spiritual (mystic). â€Å"Their cultural event is very religious and sacral. Whatever it is, dances or festivals, they always connected with their religion and beliefs.† (Indonesian informant/B.1) â€Å"I think it also a bit mystic.† (Indonesian informant/B.9) â€Å"I felt a bit freaky because it’s very mystic as well as magical.† (Singaporean informant/A.10) Other informants indicated on how the Balinese community performs’ the cultural events in Bali. Some of them thought that the cultural event, especially Balinese cultural dance, is very attractive, energetic and also powerful. â€Å"I think it’s very beautiful, and also the performance was very energetic and powerful!† (Indonesian informant/B.9) â€Å"I think it’s quite interesting and energetic†¦. and they dance with the powerful music.† (Singaporean informant/A.10) For the cultural festival, one informant commented on the way they celebrate it which is family-oriented. â€Å"In my opinion, it’s very family-oriented; it’s good, because even though they don’t have enough money, the Balinese community will be collecting money from their big family to hold their tradition as cultural event.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) Discussion: According to the findings, the tourists’ perceptions towards Bali as one of the most enchanting and well-known travel destination in the world, because of the physical beauty of the island and its natural attraction like their nice beaches. According to Picard (1996), therefore Bali is seen by tourists as the â€Å"Ultimate Island†. Other than the beauty of their natural attraction, some of the informants also revealed that Bali as an island with rich of culture and strong religious tradition. For that reason, Bali is also known as the â€Å"Island of God†, where Hinduism belief influences most of the cultural aspect in Balinese community (Picard, 1996). The tourists’ perception toward Bali is predominantly characterized by the reasons on why people traveling to Bali; and factors that motivates them. Based on Crompton (1979), it shows that there is a connection between the tourist perception about a destination and tourist motivations to travel to the destination. He points out that tourist perception on the particular destination can influence traveler’s decision making in choosing a destination. Therefore tourists’ perception about Bali also can be categorized as the Pull factors based on Dann’s theory (Dann,1977). Regarding the tourists’ perception toward the Balinese cultural events in general, the study indicates that most of informants thought that Balinese cultural event is attractive and very unique, which different with other culture. Other than the uniqueness of cultural event in Bali, some of the informants thought that Balinese cultural events have a strong connection with their religion and spiritual indeed. According to Picard (1996), the cultural and religious are interwoven in Bali. He also stated that tourism in Bali cannot be conceived apart from Balinese culture. In fact, tourism is become the largest economy’s industry in Bali, with cultural tourism is one of the major aspects that contributed to the industry. In terms of the perceptions’ towards characteristics of Balinese cultural events, most of the informants described the cultural dance in Bali is energetic and powerful; and for the cultural festival some of the informants thought that it is family-oriented. By looking at the tourists’ perceptions about cultural events shows the level of understanding and knowledge of the informants toward the Balinese cultural events. Even they do not have a clear perspective in terms of knowledge, but the study shows the good opinion toward Balinese cultural events. Based on the Gahan and Martin (1993), the tourist perceptions’ on a particular event can influence tourist behavior for attending the events. This study shows that good perceptions’ of tourist toward Balinese cultural event will influence them to attend the cultural events; where majority of the informants indicates their interest to attend the cultural event in Bali. 2.2.4 Tourist experience Motivation tourist is related to their intention of visiting the particular destination, which also influence by their perception toward the destination. Tourist experienced the destination to meets their expectation. This can be determined by knowing how their travel behavior during the trip, such as their satisfaction level, destination that they visited, as well as the frequency of visiting Bali. 2.2.4.1 Satisfaction of Trip From the qualitative study conducted to the informants that been to Bali before, all of the informant shows that they have a high satisfaction level while their trip to Bali. Most of the informants reveal that they enjoy the scenery and tourist attractions in Bali, especially the scenery of beaches. â€Å"Yes, because the scenery and the beach is very attractive. I really enjoy it.† (Indonesian informant/A.8) â€Å"I really enjoyed it with my friends and family, especially when I looked at the scenery during sunset! It’s really beautiful.† (Indonesian informant/B.9) Other than that, one of the informants thought that he/she satisfied with the trip because of the price is cheap, like for accommodation, as well as public transportation. â€Å"And my trip is very satisfied! Because it’s very cheap there, the air is fresh and no pollution! The accommodation is also cheap. I stayed near by the Nusa Dua beach. For the transportation, the taxi rate is so cheap.† (Japanese informant/B.7) 2.2.4.2 Destination Visited In terms of the destinations visited, the study indicated that Kuta area is the most popular destination for tourist. Beside that, some of the informants stated that Ubud, Nusa Dua, and Kintamani, as the other destinations that they visited during the trip. Denpasar is the main gateways in Bali; where known as the place of Ngurah Rai International airport of Bali; therefore most of the informants mentioned Denpasar as one of the place that they have been visited. 2.2.4.3 Experience for Attending Cultural Event By looking at the tourists’ experience for attending the cultural events, from five informants, four informants had been attend the cultural event in Bali, and only one informant that did not attend. Most of the informants; that had been attend it before; reveals that they watched the performance in Ubud and Kuta area. â€Å"I watched the dances during night in Ubud.† (Japanese informant/B.7) â€Å"I watched it near by my hotel in Kuta, and it’s very fantastic!† (Indonesian informant/B.9) The most cultural event that had been attended is Kecak dance, and followed by Pendet and Barong dance for the cultural dances. For the cultural festivals and ceremonies, some of the informants mentioned that they have been attending the Ngaben festivals. Whereby, one of the informants reveals that he/she had been attending both of the cultural dances and cultural festivals. â€Å"I have seen Ngaben ceremony and some of their cultural dances, like Kecak and Pendet. Kecak is very attractive dance; there is a meaning behind it. One of the interesting parts is their group cooperation.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) 2.2.4.4 Frequency of Visiting Bali Based on the frequency of visiting Bali, most of the informants stated that it is their first time going to Bali. Whereas one of the informants stated that he/she has gone to Bali for more than twice, at least 4 times a year. â€Å"Not really regularly, but I’ll go there at least 4 times a year.† (Indonesian informant/B.6) By looking at the intention for tourist that never been to Bali before, all the informants reveal that they have an intention for planning to visit Bali someday. Some of them stated that they will visit Bali when they already have enough money to go there. â€Å"I have to see my saving first.† (Korean informant/A.2) â€Å"Yes, when I have enough money, surely I’ll go there. (Indonesian informant/B.1) From the qualitative study, i