Monday, September 30, 2019
There is much to consider when expanding a business. How will you make, market, and distribute your product. Are you willing to take full liability for your product and understanding the legalities of what happens if your product is defective? Once that has been established, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to make sure that your business dealings are in order. The strength of the contract and what all it entails. Knowing that the legal document is important more so when things tend to go downhill. Above all is deciding which type of business entity the company will select especially if the company starts out small and looks to expand. Which entity will best serve the growth of the company such as Acme Fireworks? Some years ago I watched a movie called fight club. The movie dealt with a ton of social issues. One of the characters worked for a car company that would fly out their employers out to the areas where there were car accidents. They worked almost as an insurance adjuster that would com e and appraise a vehicle once it has been in a wreck and determine, based on the damages how much they would award the car owner. However in the case here the employees would view accidents all over the country and decide if it would cost more to recall the product or pay the total fee for the said accident. If the cost was too much to do a recall then the company would take responsibility for the accident if a law suit is brought forth, however if it is cheaper to recall then the necessary actions would be taken to recall the malfunctioned part. Knowing this it is important that we label the products and its proper uses so if there is an issue then it can be said that the manufacture warned the consumer. In this way, any injury would not be the fault of Acme Fireworks, but the consumer. Just as the example with the cars above, if someone lights a firecracker in a closet and the firecracker goes off and injures the person then the company is not liable being that it is neglectÃ on the part of the consumer (Rogers, 2012). Now if the same individual uses the firework outside in an open area as is stated on the label and they light the firecracker and it goes off in their hand as soon as the fuse is lit, then that is negligence on behalf of Acme. It must be understood that regardless of the product used, all products have the potential to cause consumer harm (Anthony, 1995). So that is why it is important to make sure everything from the development of the fireworks to the warning labels have been gone over to make sure that the product is not faulty. If a fuse is too short in a product or if the material used to cause the firecracker to explode is too much then that is a defectively manufactured product. Another issue could also be the type of firework that is made. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say for instance that one of the products has the tendency to go off in extreme temperatures and is purchased and placed in areas of storage when the temperatures extreme then that is negligence on the consumer, however if the consumer was not made aware of this by the manufacture then the liability falls to the company. I recall about three years ago when I was in a car accident. Our brakes that we had from the car company had been recalled. We were sent notices in the mail, phone, and email about the recall and were told to bring our vehicle in to make sure the brakes were not faulty and if they were they could be fixed free of charge. The deadline came and went a after it expired I was in a car wreck. I was making a turn in the rain and slammed my brakes and they were locked. I had the repair work done on the vehicle and was told that the brakes were faulty. I informed the dealership of the issue and was told that the company was no longer liable because the deadline had passed. I was outraged and wanted to file a lawsuit against the company, however there are deadlines and limitations to when a suit can be filed and in the state of Georgia, you have up to a year to file such claim. I missed it by 3 months and was unable to file suit against the manufacturer (Day, 2014). Another import issues are the contracts. There are 5 basic elements to a contract: Offer, acceptance, Consideration, Legality and Capacity (Rogers, 2012). Other retailers stated to the owner of Acme Fireworks that they wanted a certain amount of orders filled on a regular bases for an undisclosed time frame and a price was agreed upon, this is the acceptance and offer portion of the contract. The offeror, which in this case are the large retailers, makes an offer which once accepted byÃ Acme Fireworks, creates a binding contract. Acceptance must be in some way agreed b y all participants; it may be verbal, symbolical, oral or written. The came from the retailers, they had a want from Acme to manufacture a product for them at a certain cost (Stim, 2010). Consideration is another element of a contract and what consideration brings to the table ask the whys and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s: Why are we entering the contract and are you receiving? In this case Acme gets more money by being able to produce its products and grow their brand and the other retailers receive fireworks from Acme. However in this instance the owner of Acme may have taken on a task bigger than himself. This is a company with only 15 workers and to fill the orders with the new retailers, more employees need to be hired. Not only do they need to be hired, but they need to be trained as well. This must be done while filling out the orders. Here there is not much consideration given by the owner. How many employees do we need, how much will the work flow increase, and how long will we have a contract with the other retailers. No time period was given for the contract. Will this just be one order or is this something that will go on annually. What happen if the orders are not filled on a timely manner is the contract then void? Another question to ask is the capacity and legality of a contract. Capacity to contract means the legal competence of a person to enter into a valid contract. Usually the capacity to contract refers to the capacity to enter into a legal agreement and the competence to perfor m some act. The basic element to enter into a valid contract is that s/he much has a sound mind. Recently there was an issue with an owner of the L.A. Clippers making comments about minorities. The group of owners in the league wanted him to sell his team. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to sell and wanted to fight it, however it came out that he does not have the mental faculties to run the organization or make business decision so that responsibility was given to his wife. It came out that he has dementia, but he is fighting this claim as well. Once it is established if he can mentally make these decisions then the wife will not be able to go into discussions to purchase the franchise legally. Acme has 15 full time employees as it stands now. This is without the orders for the new retailers. What we know is that the owner guaranteed that we can take on more business, not considering the staff that we currently have. For the orders to be filled we would have to take on more labor force. Before thisÃ can be done we have to first consider what we have now. We currently have 15 people employed by Acme, to fill the new orders; do we take on double or triple the size? If we do take on more people, would it be something on permanent or temporary ba ses? Employment is very important when business is involved. There are many things to consider when a workforce is involved. When it comes with dealing with explosives it is important that we consider finding individuals who have experience with working with explosives and are well trained as well. This will cost more money for the company when it comes to hiring individuals that are trained to handle explosives. So these canÃ¢â¬â¢t be regular workers that one can find at a temp agency. However, we do not know how long to hire these individuals because there is no clarity as to the length of the contract, so the types of workers that we would have to hire would have to come through labor force agencies (Smith, V., & Neuwirth, E.B., 2009). The great thing about a temp agency is the large pool of people that they have to choose from. There are times when many corporations view temp agency workers as people who are unskilled, however with the types of agencies that are around today, they can find highly skilled individuals that many companies w ould be hard pressed to do, being that they would have to exhaust many resources to do so. It has to be understood that this business started out of a garage a couple years ago and is now grown into a company that employees 15 people on staff. Now with the new revenue that will come into the company, Acme Fireworks will have to expand. Acme is a sole proprietorship owned by one individual. This is the simplest organization structure to have. There is less paperwork as well as the tax implications. If there is a loss for that year you can use this loss to offset your other income on your personal return (Fishman, 2014). Though operating as a sole proprietorship is easier, it can also have some setbacks as well. The main problem is that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no separation between the individual and the business with the sole proprietorship. That means that if something should happen in the business, like taking on huge contracts with no clear time line and limited planning and staff, youÃ¢â¬â¢d be personally liable. For example, if Acme Fireworks business is ever sued or runs int o financial trouble, the owner would be personally on the hook and creditors and lawsuits can come after yourÃ personal assets. That is an issue because if the company profits go to offset the debt, there is little to no money to run the company properly, expand, or take care of the employees. This is just one of the many things to consider when changing your business entity as well as deciding on what is best for the company as a whole. Acme Fireworks started out of a garage, like most businesses it is difficult to raise capital or arranging long term financing because of fewer assets. Also there is one voice and one view which can scare big business opportunities away. This is why a Sole Proprietorship for the future of Acme Fireworks would not be feasible. Being in this type of entity makes it hard to expand. To grow and expand a company needs a formal business structure. So the choice is which entity to choose? With such an undertaking in such a short time, the risk would cause a sole owner to want to form an LLC or incorporate his or her business. In the case of Acme Fireworks, it would be best to change the business entity to a corporation. With the promise of product to these new large retailers, Acme Fireworks would need more capital to grow the business as well as purchase the necessary material to make sure the new orders are able to fill as well as fulfilling previous obligations to the other retailers that we have business with. Choosing this entity protects the owner from legal liability, gives the ability to attract more investors through stocks, and has more structure where there is not just one voice for the business. The juxtaposition to this is the tax liability and the time and how much it cost to incorporate, unlike a sole proprietorship, incorporating a business takes much more paperwork, as well as feeÃ¢â¬â¢s that need to be paid to the state the business is in. One of the silver linings for the employees is that even if something happens to the owner, or if he or she retires, the corporation will still be i n tact unlike sole proprietorships. There are many things to consider when it comes to running a company, expanding it, and watching it flourish. There are many businesses that started out in a small garage, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, even men like John D. Rockefeller. However, growth cannot take place without determination and risk. The best way to make sure that your ready to expand is to be sure where you want to take the company and have a sound plan as to the steps one will take to get there. Once you have a vision and financial backing theÃ next step is to decide which type of business entity you want to be. There are many entities to choose from and no one is greater than the next. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all about how you want to mold and model your business. Reference: Anthony, S. (1995). Warning: marketers must do better with product warnings. Marketing News, (13). 4. DAY, J. A. (2014). Protecting Yourself from Statutes of Repose. Tennessee Bar Journal, 50(1), 33-34. Fishman, S. (2014). CHAPTER 2: Choosing the Legal Form for Your Business. In , Working for Yourself (pp. 15-54). Nolo. Smith, V., & Neuwirth, E. B. (2009). Temporary Help Agencies and the Making of a New Employment Practice. Academy Of Management Perspectives, 23(1), 56-72. doi:10.5465/AMP.2009.37008003
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In the story, The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, is written in a historical point of view. Ã¢â¬Å"Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon. Ã¢â¬ Their main food source is corn and to make sure that the corn will come they have to have human sacrifices. If they don't they say Ã¢â¬Å"First thing you know, we'd all be eating stewed chickweed and acorns. Ã¢â¬ The corn doesn't come if they don't have human sacrifices and they have to eat other food than corn. Shirley Jackson wrote this in a cultural form in this passage. Jackson uses irony and comedy in her story, about how weak human individuals are.In the story, Young Goodman Brown, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, writes in a more linguistic way. He uses many descriptive words and figures of speech. Ã¢â¬Å"There may be a devilish Indian behind every tree. Ã¢â¬ Nathaniel is talking about there being bad things around every corner in life. Ã¢â¬Å"What if the devil himself should be at my very elbow! Ã¢â¬ Nathaniel explains everything so well in his writing and he seems very smart with the words that he uses. Goodman Brown believes that the devil is taking over the minds of the people he loves.Nathaniel Hawthorne explains that Goodman Brown believes in the goodness of people until he meets the devil. In the stories, The Lottery and Young Goodman Brown, they both are very different but then yet very similar. These stories are different because Shirley Jackson writes in a cultural form and Nathaniel Hawthorne writes in a linguistic form. They both are very good writes and explain things well. Jackson's writing is deep and kind of dark. HawthornÃ¢â¬â¢s is very dark especially when Goodman Brown is in the woods. Both of these stories and authors are very good at their work.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Atlanta Home Loan Case 1. )Types of controls Al Fiorni used: Action Controls: -By not letting Wilbur sign the checks he administered an administrative constraint on him. This allowed for Al to approve the outflow of cash from his company. -Al was smart to forward the corporate mail to California because it allowed him to have an idea of the overhead expenses the company was incurring. -Although Al was not monitoring the day to day operations of the company he monitored tracked the employee head count, number of leads, credit inquiries, loan applications funded expenses and bank activity. By monitoring these actions Al can hold employees accountable for desired actions or undesired actions. 2) What went wrong? A lot went wrong. Even the controls that Al implemented above he left loopholes which weakened them significantly. Even though he would not let Wilbur sign the checks he left four unsigned checks with Letitia which in turn defeated the purpose of him not allowing Wilbur to sign the checks. In this case, he did use the right action control but he failed to implement it properly. When Al monitored the day to day operations of the company from afar he was doing the right thing but he also did not implement it efficiently. Al should have communicated to all the employees how he was monitoring their actions. Not only to catch wrongdoings but also to reward the employees for exceptional work. This would have prevented undesirable actions if employees would know that they would be held accountable for their actions. This would have also spurred good behavior if they knew there was a reward for such behavior. Al Fiorni did not properly set up personal and cultural controls. I believe his biggest mistake was not preparing his company for his departure in a timely manner. Because he was in such a rush to get to California he was not able to ensure the personal control of employee selection and placement. Al should have devoted a considerable amount of time to finding the right person to do the job and give them the necessary resources and training to be successful.
Friday, September 27, 2019
The appearance of 'symbolism' and 'themes' found in Maya Angelou's, I know Why the Caged Bird Sings - Essay Example The years in between are marked by at least seven major upheavals of her life, moving from her parents home as a tiny child to her grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s house in Stamps, back to St. Louis to live with her mother and back to Stamps following a rape by her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriend. Eventually, she is returned to her mother, this time in San Francisco. Her visit to her father in Southern California turns into a nightmare period of living on the streets until she is finally able to return to her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s home in San Francisco. Throughout the story, Angelou employs a great deal of symbolism to relate her personal journey to the greater journey of the black woman of her generation through such devices as MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s Easter Dress, MommaÃ¢â¬â¢s store, MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s rape at the age of eight, the metaphor of the cage and the concept of voice. The story begins with a particularly poignant scene from MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s early life in Stamps that instantly identifies the degree to which the black community was subdued under the yoke of white expectations through the symbol of the lavender dress. Although MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s community is entirely black, her ideals regarding what is beautiful are established by the white world outside. This concept is symbolized in the form of her lavender Easter dress. Ã¢â¬Å"I knew that once I put it on IÃ¢â¬â¢d look like a movie star Ã¢â¬ ¦ I was going to look like one of the sweet little white girls who were everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream of what was right with the worldÃ¢â¬ (Angelou 1). In this statement, Angelou captures the primary desire of all black girls of her generation and before and many since who have felt the only way to find social acceptance was to somehow rid oneself of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëblackness.Ã¢â¬â¢ Angelou herself has indicated that she Ã¢â¬Å"wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t thinking so much a bout my own life or identity. I was thinking about a particular time in which I lived and the influences of that time on a number of people Ã¢â¬ ¦ I used the central figure Ã¢â¬â
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Assignment Example EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is concerned with his duties in order to raise Emily and this is ironic because those duties made her to fail in giving the appropriate care to Emily (Olsen 271). The story is set or moves in a long timeframe. It is set in the 1950 but it focuses back in 1930 during the time of great depression and 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s at the time of the Second World War. The story is also set in the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s working class home as she indicates that after birth of their first child they were poor and could not afford to bring up the daughter as required (Olsen 272). In the story, EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is contacted by her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s school counsellor or teacher. She informs him about how her daughter had a trouble life while growing. The difficulties which the mother talks about her daughter include, she was left by her father when 8 years old, She was sent away to live with relatives because her mother was poor and she was sent to a convalescent home and she never enjoyed (Olsen
Disciplines - Essay Example Web development uses system development process. The phases in both software development process and system engineering have some similarities in that they are sequential. These process/phases have to be followed step by step. System engineering is taken to be the first process in the software development life cycle. This is where the requirements of the larger system where the software will be functioning under are considered (Mishra, 2011). Security systems can use the SecSDLC (security system development life cycle) which happens to follow the same methodology as the commonly known SDLC (system development life cycle). Both do consist of the same phases but SecSDLC involves the identification of specific threats as well as the risks that they represent (Charles K., 2013). Sage A. P. (1992). System Engineering, Volume 6 of Wiley series in systems engineering and management. Wiley series in systems engineering, Technology & Engineering Wiley inter-science publication, John Wiley &
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Business skills - Assignment Example This paper will provide how the entrepreneurial mindset would add value in the business environment(McGrath, 2000, p. 244). A good mindset should set its ambition for achievement. By doing this, they are setting their standards high and have an ambition to achieve. Their mindset should be forward looking. Looking forward will show the way the business has still to follow. The business mindset should be self-sufficient. Owners have to accumulate the necessary capital to sustain the business. Furthermore, the business mindset has to be optimistic(JM Haynie, 2010, p. 87). The mind has to see an advantage rather than a disadvantage for venturing into business. To achieve higher, the business has to be task and result oriented. The management should define to the employees on what the business wants. All employees, either the manager or cook should be restless and energetic. A hardworking workforce can attain any level of profit realization. Managers and supervisors have to be observant of the situation of the businesses(Hitt, 2001, p. 80). They should keep all employees on track and ensure they produce the b est. A self-confident businessperson is destined for success. They should fear no competitor and have the ability to participate in risk-taking ventures. The businessperson should also be persistent. He has to be determined to achieve anything. A business dedicated to completing a task would achieve higher in the end. The trait of independence is very important in businesses. The operators of these businesses should do things their own(Mauer, 2009, p. 98). Thus, they have to demonstrate that they enjoy conducting unconventional things. Thus will be their beginning of success. Being independent is working alone. Businesspersons should not involve family members or friends in running a business. Working independent will demonstrate the real potential of the business. In the market, there are forces that diverge attention of most entrepreneurs. They lure
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
GRAMMAR PROJECT 2- Analysis of Internet Resources - Research Paper Example Other than nouns and articles, ESL students may also find it difficult to avoid usage of passive voice, a grammar structure discussed further in this paper. The first exercise is from http://www.world-english.org/articles.htm. The basic rules for using articles are clearly outlined. First, articles fall under two categories, that is, definite and indefinite. Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ is an indefinite article used before nouns describing non-specific objects or one object in a group of many, which begin with consonants (World English, 2004). Examples given include: Other rules provided by the exercise expressly state that articles should not be used with names of states, provinces or natural features, unless they are referring to a collection of the mentioned items. Additionally, articles should not be used when speaking about items in general. The principal purpose of this exercise is to enable learners to distinguish between definite and indefinite articles, as well as, to determine the article to use with specific nouns (World English, 2004). This is achieved through extensive use of credible examples. There are also exercises that give direct answers, enabling the learners to practice lessons learned about articles. The second article came from http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/iej/articles/v5n5/miller/paper.pdf. The article begins by recognizing the fact that the use of articles is largely problematic for non-native English speakers. The principal factor to consider in usage of articles is the category under which nouns fall as either countable or uncountable. Indefinite articles (Ã¢â¬Å"aÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"anÃ¢â¬ ) can therefore be used with countable nouns but not the uncountable ones (Miller, 2005). The article is free of grammatical errors and spelling mistakes, thus placing emphasis on its accuracy and credibility. Additionally, the resource gives detailed results of exercises done by ESL students showing their
Monday, September 23, 2019
How a criminal develops - Essay Example For example, these children will latter be found practicing what they had watched earlier. The theory has also been proved as true by a considerable number of serial killers who have admitted to have watched horror films and scary pictures (Erika, 2006). Types of feelings that lead to criminal development Alpha motives are feelings that result impulsively from day to day ordinary behaviors therefore proving that social learning theory is exhibited (Miller and Dollard 1941). Nonetheless, other motives might be resultants which are environmental experiences. For instance, in learning theory, an individual who has been insulted by his colleague might feel that the friend has established control over him and therefore this feeling instigates him to seek counter attack. A considerable number of criminals are influenced by these feelings of control in stances where they have perceived that other people have advantage in their lives (Bandura, 1977). As pointed out by Hensley and Singer (200 4) the social learning theory a person is Ã¢â¬Å"instigatedÃ¢â¬ toward a behavior that is a precursor situation of which the predicted rejoinder is the consequences. The social learning theory is supported by psychological findings on frustration theory, regarding criminal activity and the things that lead to developing of criminal behavior. For example, in instances where one expects positive results from a behavior, or perceives there is a high possibility of a positive outcome, then they are most likely to be involved in that behavior. The behavior is encouraged, with positive result, making that person to engage again in the behavior. There are numerous evidences supporting social learning theory through frustration theory including retaliations for nonreward (Erika, 2006). For instance, serial killers come from a stressful environment. They in one way or another have been subjected to some degree of frustration at a tender age or latter by their parents, siblings, and or soc iety. This theory is extensively supported by psychological studies of the criminal mind of a serial killer. It has been established that a mind of a criminal is managed by various distressful sensations which the criminal tries to stop by committing a particular act (Bandura, 1977). Fundamentally, in social learning theory, a criminalsÃ¢â¬â¢ mind is motivated by various motives which in essence are the feelings of distress (Hensley and Singer, 2004). This urge is necessitated by a stimulus which leads to voluntary behavior to please and meet the psychological needs. For instance, it is evident that when an individual decides to stealing food, that person is a victim of distress and is acting from the feelings of distress (Erika, 2006). Therefore, feelings of hunger might drive a person to steal in order to satisfy his immediate needs of starvation. Nonetheless, in the event that the same individual has enough food and decides to continue stealing more food, then it is observed th at this personsÃ¢â¬â¢ motive is motivated by the reaction of feeling anguish. According to Hensley and Singer (2004) other significant reports showed that serial killers might have acted out of instigation and also out of frustrations from failed intimate and other social relations therefore indicating social learning theory. For instance, this is exhibited by David Berowitz alias Son of Sam, a serial killer of New York, who
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Single parent families Essay It is a sad fact of modern life that more and more children are growing up in single parent family environments.Whether divorce, death of a parent, single member parenthood etc is the reeason. The ims pact on children in such environment is similar. This has created many problems but with will and cooperation solutions can be found. First of all, children who grow up in an intact two-parent family with both biological parents present do better in a wide range of outcomes than children who grow up in a single-parent family and this can be a serious problem. A very common problem is that a single-parent family child needs to have a standard role model and such a lack can lead to many psychological problems. For instance, children will have less emotional support, may feel insecure, lonely or alianated. That means that children may come up with other ideas in order to heal the pain they feel. Drug problrms, more alcohol, crimes, suicides are some of the most common behavours. Except these, a single parent family is band to have economical problems. For the following reasons the parent must, first of all, understabd why his child is feeling , the depressed. Then the children have to understand that in spite of the change of their family structure, they have a family. This can be done by visiting a psychologist. With profound communication away the family members, this problem can be overcome. Parent and children can also get help from a relative such as uncle/aunt that is willing to help in this difficult situation and fill the gap of the missing parent. To overcome the effects of limited finances, single paremts should seek out community resources to supplement the needs of their families including agencies that can also help them by supporting the family. In short, with cooperation, flexibility, understanding and love, many problems can be solved and as the years pass by the children of single parents will be as normal as the children of traditional fami les.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Role Of The 1870 Forster Education Act Education Essay This Act provided a network of elementary schools for filling the gaps in the provision from church-run charity schools which were available for the poor, while the rich could afford private tutors. They only wanted all the children to have the basic education, not to change the class basis of education. Forester Education Act made state education compulsory up to the age of 10 and so they were taking childrens out of employment. The childrens families did not like that because they would have less money with childrens not working. The writer H. G. Wells describe this an act to educate the lower class lines, and with specially trained, inferior teachers. However, the Act signified the first general acceptance, which leads in schooling being paid from state taxations and resulting in a link between the state and education that exit today. The 1870 Act, also explain the cause of so many old primary schools existing from 100 years ago, many of them being build in the years following the Act. There were some reasons for introducing this Act such as an economical benefit like educated workforce beneficial for society and also for maintaining global position. Philanthropic reason, because it was wrong to have childrens working from young ages, seen as being antirevolutionary, appearing to bring equality which will also be beneficial to society and to individual. Another reason could be that it seemed that the school provided some kind of social control through education by teaching people how to behave. This Act was introduced also because of political functions being in need for educated population (Taylor P, 1995), (Wilson P, 1989). Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press. Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins. Identify the differences between formal education and the hidden curriculum. Make reference to the functionalist and the Marxist viewpoint. In schools childrens are learning a lot of things that are not part of their timetable of official lessons. The hidden curriculum term is used to refer at what children learn indirect from the manner in which the school is organised and also from their teachers. In most of the schools hidden curriculum include punctuality, obedience to authority, appropriate dress, co-operation, honesty. These values and others are communicated by teachers in assemblies. The formal education, comparing with the hidden curriculum, refers to the skills that a person already has, that are prescribed, fixed and it cant be changed. Marxists argue that it creates subservient workforce who are trained to be compliant and bored but the functionalists argue that this is beneficial for the society, they argue that society needs to be in balance, to work together(Guy, C., 2012). Guy, C., (12.12.2012), Hidden Curriculum-Formal Curriculum, Handout Describe and evaluate the tripartite system of education. There were theories that there were different types of pupils, with different abilities and aptitudes and that they could identify a childs type by intelligence testing. Because of this theory, the 1944 Act had introduced a national test called the 11 plus test for allocating childrens to one of the three types of secondary school. Those three types of secondary school were technical schools, secondary modern schools and grammar school. These three were known as tripartite system of secondary education. Grammar school were aiming for children who were classified as bright and academic good at solving logical problems. These childrens were meant to study science, mathematics and difficult subject in order to prepare for GCE exams. There are records showing that less than 20 % of the school population went to study in grammar schools. The technical schools were meant to be for children with abilities in technical subjects with an attendance of 5 %, but most of the children went to seco ndary modern schools. They received basic education with an opportunity in taking an external examination until CSEs was introduced in 1960. The tripartite system was meant to provide separate but equal types of schooling geared for those children with particular abilities. Some of the ideas of the Act were to have equal status, similar equipment and staffing, but that did not worked in practice. There were children that did not participated in the tripartite system at all. Also the private sector of education was being excluded from the scope of the Act and the independent schools continued to charge fees. There were some criticisms of the tripartite system because they provided low self esteem for children making them to think that they are not cleaver enough or they did not tried enough. Another criticism was that provided social class division in society because even though the fees were abolished, working class children were less likely to go to a grammar school that those from middle class. Because of the criticisms about 11 plus examination, the tripartite system was rejected. (Taylor P, 1995), (Wilson P, 1989). Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press. Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins. Describe and evaluate the comprehensive system. Comprehensive system is based on the principle of one type of secondary school for everyone. Children from all kind of social backgrounds and with all kind of abilities could attend the same type of school, being provided with the same chances and opportunities to obtain training and qualification. The age 11 entrance exam does not exist. Legislation from 1980s provided parents with large choices of schools. The movement from selective to comprehensive school remains a political matter. The political left and the Labour party favourite comprehensive schools because in their opinion this was the only school that provided equality in education. In contrast with this, the right and the Conservative Party were very concern about providing appropriate education for everyone. In 1965 the Local Education Authorities were asked by the Labour government to reorganise secondary education on comprehensive lines. The trend of comprehensive slowed down after 1970 allowing grammar schools to exist at the same time as comprehensives. With the election of Labour government was also introduce a legislation requiring all LEAs to go comprehensive. By the end of May 1979, 80% of secondary school children were attending comprehensive. Comprehensive schools failed to meet their originals aims because some public opinions opposed comprehensive education; a broad social mix in a school has rarely been achieved as schools reflect their catchment area; New Right claimed that academically capable children were held back (Taylor P, 1995). Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press. Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins. What is marketization in education? Explain and evaluate how league tables can play a part in marketization. Marketization in education represent the way the school make them buyable by the parents who want a good school for their childrens, a school that provide high standards of benefits such as school that provide a swimming pool, a meal, a music room or a sport club. The League Tables were introduced to provide information about the schools. Also because of the existence of League Tables, parent were able to make a better choice in which school to enrol their children, meaning that there was a competition created between school named as marketization; parents wanting to sent their children to schools that appeared successful in League Tables (Wilson P, 1989). Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press. Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins. Describe and evaluate the role of vocational education in the UK today. Vocational education means training for a specific job. Because the industry needed skilled work forces, they made these vocational education schools in which pupils were trained in vocational courses because some of the childrens responded better to courses related to work. Some of the recent initiatives are; youth training scheme (YTS), employment training (ET), national vocational qualification (NVQ). This is another attempt to raise standards. Evaluating the vocational education, some argue that dont leave equal opportunities, some vocational courses are not highly valued and may be considerate as second rate. Some are saying that are unfair because are set when childrens are too young; also this may be a way of paying law wages and there may not be a job at the end. From Marxist point of view, the industry is failing. He argues that it is more about training for low wages. However, universities have been open to vocational qualification, but not all (Guy, C., 2012). Guy, C., (05.12.2012) Vocationalism, Handout Describe and evaluate the Assisted Placed Scheme. This scheme sponsors academically gifted children, helping them to pay the fees for their independent schooling. It was initiated in 1980 by The Education Act and operates by the Secretary of State for Education. The parents who had childrens at independent school were given help in paying the fees. They wanted to give a chance to gifted children who had less affluent parent at having a high academically education. By 1985, 17,500were using the scheme and by 1990, 34,000. In 1988 and 1989, the cost of the scheme was Ã £50 millions. As an overall the cost was small. The scheme weakens the state sector of education but reinforce the private sector. The selection process involves interviews with parents and children, procedure which can affect childrens with parents from working class backgrounds. There is an assumption in the scheme that the schooling offered by the independent schools is better that that from the state system (Taylor P, 1995). Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press. Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins. Analyse and evaluate the role that the Public School System plays in Britain today. The public schools were categorised as agents of moral and spiritual development. They are still following their tradition, they have special attire. They are controlled by democratic authority and administration. In public schools, people can be seen as constituents meaning, they have a legitimate say in how the school should be run. In a way it can be said that private school are run by the parents who pay fees for their childrens (Holborn, 2004). The Public Schools term is commonly used in England and Wells referring to a group of 10 per cent of independent schools. The Public Schools are more prestigious schools such as Eton, Harrow and Rugby because they had always prepared pupils for important public offices. From 2000 independent schools, 200 are public schools. Holborn, H. a. (2004). Sociology-Themes and Perspectives, sisth edition. London: HarperCollins. Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press. Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
King of the Delta Blues Singers: Robert Johnson The life of Robert Johnson, one of the most influential early blues artists, in shrouded by vague details and encompassed in mystery. His emotion filled playing and singing blends to form some of the most moving, original blues music ever produced. Ironically, despite being one of the top influences to blues music, little is known about the shy, mild mannered bluesman. "Almost nothing, is known about his lifeÃ¢â¬ ¦ he is only a name on a few recordings." Where did he come from? Who was JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Who inspired Robert to play the blues and who influenced his music? Who exactly was Robert Johnson? Only the vague recollections of his friends and family link us to the mysterious life of Robert Johnson. From these accounts the story of Robert Johnson is brought to life, and the events which fueled his powerful music are pieced together. Robert Johnson was born on May eighth, 1911, in the heart of the Mississippi Delta. Robert was the eleventh child born to Mrs. Julia Dodds. RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s mother described little Robert as a playful little boy, who "Always used to be listenin, listenin to the wind or the chickens cluckin in the backyard or me, when IÃ¢â¬â¢d be singin round the house. And he just love churchÃ¢â¬ ¦ Little Robert set on my lap and try to keep time, look like, or hold on to my skirt and sort of jig up and down and laugh and laugh." (Lomax, 14) Thus, Robert was first introduced by his church into the world of music and was forever captured by its beauty. Mrs. Johnson didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much trouble with Robert as a child but as he grew older, he became more and more intrigued about the extravagant life of the bluesmen, and taken by the spiritual music. He started following the musicians around, staying out all night, intrigued by the bluesmanÃ¢â¬â¢s free lifestyle. Anyone that had a guitar, little Robert would follow off according to his mother. "Sometimes he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t come home," RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s mother recalls, "and a whippin never did him no good." Mrs. Johnson feared the worst for Robert, she believed the guitar was the instrument of the devil and that the music he listened to was full of sin. Robert would ease her worries by playing church songs to her, yet this never erased the fear she held inside for her son. Robert was captured by the mystery surrounding the life of the bluesmen. The women, gam... ...the blues. In 1990 a collection of Robert JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s songs were put together in a two disk collection of his work. This CD set won a Grammy and sold over half a million copies. Johnson was inducted into the Hall of Fame twice, first in 1980 and again a second time as an early influence in 1986. JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s mysterious, shadowy life and beautiful, emotion packed songs will continue to intrigue the minds of many for years to come. Bibliography: Booth, Stanley. Rhythm Oil. New York; Pantheon Books, 1991. Finn, Julio. The Bluesman. Brooklyn; Interlink Books, 1992. Guralnick, Peter. Searching For Robert Johnson. New York; Obelisk Books, 1989. "Johnson, Robert." CD-ROM. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1996. Feb. 4. "Johnson, Robert." Encarta Online. Jan., 1999. Jan 23, 1999.. Lomax, Alan. The Land Where the Blues Began. New York; Pantheon Books, 1993. "Robert Johnson." Johnson, Robert. Dec., 1999. Jan. 23., 1999. . "Robert Johnson." Robert Johnson. May, 1999. Jan. 23.,1999. Shirley, David. Every Day I sing The Blues: The Story of B.B. King. Danbury; Grolier Publishing, 1995. "Welcome to the Crossroads" Robert Johnson. Jun., 1998. Jan., 1999..
Expanding Feminist Activism Ecological Feminism: local/global activism Ecofeminism- Links the domination of women and the domination of nature. Ecofeminism places importance on our connection as people of one earth and also recognizes how women have been, historically in the capitalist patriarchy, labeled as subordinate in relation to the dominating body. The environment falls into this subordinate category because it continues to be pressed and used to benefit the man machine. It may be hard for participants in the capitalist system to open their eyes and accept an ecofeminist stance when the realms of ecology and capitalism are held in opposition. "Ecofeminists do not support the idea that women's increased economic, political and social participation in the predominant, but also destructive and life-opposing socio-economic system is a good way to freedom" (Littig 15). It is our duty to act in ways that promote a change in the current system. My essay will explore not only the domination of nature and women everywhere by the capitalist system, it will also address the ways in which people are acting to promote ecological a wareness and the breakdown of a dualistic ideology. "We are constantly invited by those dutifully serving the gods of profit and production to turn our attention elsewhere, to downgrade our concerns, and to view the very economic system that has caused the present global degradation of the environment as the solution to the problems it has generated" (Foster 25). We do not have to completely reject the current social order. It simply needs to be infused with a more egalitarian social order. Instead of seeing nature and women as inferior and readily exploitable, their connection should be viewed as a ... ...e in proactive dialogue and know how important the environment is. We are a product of the environment. I suggest that everyone recognize the connection and respect it. Works Cited Cortese, Anthony. "History of Second Nature." (Nov. 2002) :n. pag. Online. Second Nature. Internet. 13 November, 2002. Available: http://www.secondnature.org/ Dale, Ann. At the Edge. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2001. Foster, John Bellamy. Ecology Against Capitalism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2002. Littig, Beate. Feminist Perspectives on Environment and Society. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall, 2001. Schmandt, Jurgen, and Ward, C.H. eds. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Sherman, Donna. "Gaia Arts." (Nov. 2002) :n. pag. Online. Gaia Arts. Internet. 12 November, 2002. Available: http://www.Gaiaarts.net/
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Education Walk through any school and one fact becomes strikingly clear, every student is different. Living conditions, health, and confidence are a few of the factors that vary dramatically from student to student. However, one commonality can be detected among all learners, they all have needs. Although many individuals might disagree on the importance of these needs, the needs themselves are apparent. One psychological theory, developed by Abraham Maslow, is that our needs can be arranged in Ã¢â¬Å"a hierarchy ascending from such basic physiological needs as hunger and thirst through safety and love needs to needs for esteem, and ultimately, self-actualizationÃ¢â¬ (Mischel 211). Commonly known as MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierachy of needs, this theory is based on the assumption that all people have the desire to maximize their potential and strive to do what they are capable of doing. Both maximizing potential and striving to find capability are important goals in education. In turn, if a student cannot sufficiently satisfy one of their needs in the MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy, they will never reach their full potential. In essence, educators must become familiar with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy and be prepared to mold their classroom into an environment that allows students to fulfill their needs when other surroundings, such as homes or social settings, do not encourage or allow the satisfaction of needs. I, as a future educator, have developed methods and approaches for dealing with students who are deficient in areas of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs forms the shape of a triangle, with physiological needs placed at the bottom. Physiological needs include food, clothing, and sleep. Obviously, these ... ...needs are not being fulfilled. In essence, an educator will be more effective if they have an arsenal of approaches for dealing with students who are deficient in areas of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s triangle. Works Cited Jones, Michael. Ã¢â¬Å"MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs Can Lower Recidivism.Ã¢â¬ Corrections Today 66.4 (2004) : 18Ã¢â¬â22. Kiel, Joan M. Ã¢â¬Å"Reshaping MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs to Reflect TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Educational and Managerial Philosophies.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Instructional Psychology 26.3 (1999) : 167-168. Maslow, A.H. The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. New York: The Viking Press, 1971. Mischel, Harriet, and Walter Mischel. Readings in Personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1973. Mischel, Walter. Introduction to Personality.4th ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.,1986. Perks, Carol Ann. Ã¢â¬Å"Get a Life!Ã¢â¬ . Teaching Pre K-8. 30.1 (1999) : 74-76.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The definition of a Ã¢â¬Å"good timeÃ¢â¬ is different for everyone, but for me its reading a good book, fiction, non-fiction, biographies, history, religious books, comics anything . When I came to America in July 2013, I was fascinated to see a lot of different things and one of them were libraries, since I have a passion for reading books, I try to read one whenever I have free time, there were a lot of books ranging from the ones for small kids to those for adults. Sometimes I thought about becoming an author and sometimes a librarian. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why for my Senior Project, I will be exploring my passion of reading and libraries by showing the importance of libraries. I did not have any knowledge about the libraries in the US and I was very interested in doing it, I did research, surveys and volunteer work. My first objective was to learn the system of the library. In the 18th century, when the people first realized that there should be a way where people can gain knowledge, acquire information about anything they are interested or simply read because they like it thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when the first library started operating in America. However, at that time many people donated a lot of money so that the libraries will be build and many donated all of their books so that other people will be able to gain knowledge from them. There was no need for a system back then as there was not much variety of books, but as time passed there were more and more discoveries, inventions and a lot of other knowledge which came, books increased and as the advancement went on and on, people realized there should be books for different age levels and that in order for the library to keep running without any sort of problems like stealing of books, proper organization of books and the supply of books. The need to check and arrange the large varieties of books was fulfilled by a librarian. There are many different systems of classification of books in a library which vary from library to library. Classification serves two main purposes in the library, to arrange books in a logical manner on the library shelves and to group like subjects together, They are classified either by numbering or on the basis of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s name alphabetically. The Dewey Decimal Classification System is the most widely used method for classifying books in the library. This system is a general knowledge organization toolÃ that is continuously revised to keep pace with knowledge. It is named after Melvil Dewey, an American Librarian who developed it in 1876. This system is a numerical scheme for the arrangement of subjects of nonfiction books, and it classifies books by dividing them into 10 main subject groups that are called categories. Each category is represented by figures beginning with 000 and going on to 999. In other words, it is a system of numbers used to mark and arrange mostly non-fiction books. As I started volunteering in Columbia Pike Library, there were different sections for children, teens and adults. Since I mostly work in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s section, this is the type of classification I learned about in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s section. Since children are the ones who are in the process of learning how to read, their books are classified on a deeper level than that of teens and adults. They are classified on the basis of their leve l of reading like J, JE, JP, the Ã¢â¬Å"JÃ¢â¬ stands for juvenile which are mostly board books. The next are the Ã¢â¬Å"JPÃ¢â¬ (juvenile picture books) these books which are generally shelved on the basis of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s last name then Ã¢â¬Å"JEÃ¢â¬ (juvenile easy readers) these are for beginning readers, JP (juvenile fiction) these books harry potter, the non-fiction books are the juvenile non-fiction and juvenile biographies. The same goes for CDs and DVDs for children as well, they are also arranged as J/CD/DVD. The adult and teens section is comparatively less categorized and simply classified into fiction and non-fiction. The technological and management skills required for running a library are getting higher thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why it has become necessary to acquire a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in Library science. From FergusonÃ¢â¬â¢s careers in focus:- Ã¢â¬Å"Most acquisition librarian positions require a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in library science (M.L.S) a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in information service or a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in science of information.Ã¢â¬ Ac quisition librarians are responsible for building and maintaining a libraryÃ¢â¬â¢s collection of books and periodicals (e-publications) so they need a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in science information . I did a survey on the type of books preferred by teens the most, the options were fiction, nonfiction, history and biography. There were 0% votes for both history and biography non fiction had 33.33% vote and fictional books had 66.67% vote. Fiction got the majority votes. My second objective was to research about developing recommendation of books based on different age groups, The reason I did this objective was to develop a sense of recommendation or to be able to give anÃ opinion to people about any kind of book. My consultant asked me to make lists of books by searching for them in amazon because they have the latest books and they also have a better search engine then the libraryÃ¢â¬â¢s catalog. By doing this objective I learned how to research about books in order to suggest them to someone or to update the library. My consultant asked me to make lists of books for aged 2-3 or any other group by searching from the catalog or sometimes making a list of books for children th at were published after 2009 from amazon, and then give it to her so that it can be used to update the library. The best website to find the ideal book for any age group is amazon, this I learned from experience, after searching the books for hours and not being able to find the desired ones, the easiest method is to use the Ã¢â¬Å"advanced searchÃ¢â¬ by putting in the desired requirements, I was able to easily find the books and then searched for them in the libraryÃ¢â¬â¢s catalog to check whether they were there or not. My consultant gave me several projects about making bookmark bibliographies one of them was about creating bookmark bibliographies for kids and teens about other countries and religions since books give children an idea about the other parts of the world, these books were mostly about their culture, food, religion and daily activities. Ã¢â¬Å"If we wish to create a lasting peace we must begin with the children.Ã¢â¬ -Mohandas Gandhi I personally liked this project a lot, because kids and teens should explore other parts and regions of the world by reading books like pic ture books, religion, food and culture, because I feel that the media and the internet seem to create a very negative influence on people all around the world, about their neighbouring countries and about all the other countries around the world, children should read and know about other cultures of the world so that their would be more peace in the future. It is better to have an idea about something before believing anything about it which the TV shows. My third objective was reviewing practicality of normal libraries and virtual libraries. Virtual libraries or digital libraries are a great source of information and learning, while many predicted that as digital libraries will begin, that will be the end of the normal libraries and that all the shelves of the public libraries will be sweaped clean, but it did not. While many people who want to save their time and effort prefer digital libraries, there are many people including myself who prefer reading the old fashionedÃ way. In my survey of virtual libraries vs. normal libraries, 13 people responded to the survey, out of which 8 prefered virtual libraries and 5 preferred normal libraries, there was a 38.46% vote for normal libraries and 61.54% vote for virtual libraries. The results surprised me because I thought people will choose normal libraries, because even though a virtual library sounds good, it is difficult to access virtual library and some require membership too. I researched about the advantages and disadvantages of normal and virtual libraries. My second survey was to find out the biggest advantage and disadvantage of virtual libraries. The advantages included Immediate access to resources, Information updated immediately, No physical boundaries, Support different learning styles, Accessible for the disabled.Information retrieval,Teaching tool for information literacy, Storage of information, Networking capabilities (provides links to other virtual libraries) and Directs students to relevant resources. Out of 12 people, 7 chose Immediate access to information making it 58.33%, 3 people chose information updated immediately which made it 25%, one person chose support different learning styles and one person chose directs students to releva nt sources making each of them 8%. These results were very predictable because no doubt the biggest advantage is immediate access to information. The disadvantages included Restricted by copyright law, the requirement for internet access and that skilled professionals are required to organize,maintain and help students. Out of 12 people 5 chose requires internet access, 4 chose that skilled professionals are required for help and 3 chose restricted by copyright. So in the disadvantages the need for internet access seemed to cause the most problems. So my overall conclusion from my surveys is that even though normal libraries will not end, there are many who prefer digital libraries over normal ones, the biggest advantage is the immediate access to resources as there is no need to go to the library and if it is checked out, there is no need to wait for it the because the virtual libraries gets rid of that long process and the biggest disadvantage is the requirement for internet access, it is no doubt that internet has made the life of people unimaginably easy but not everyone can afford this luxury. My fourth objective was to research about the history of the libraries in the US. It is due to the founding fathers of America like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson that the system ofÃ library began the US. The first public library came in the 18th century after some time, lots of people contributed millions of dollars so that education could be given to all for free. In 1731, Benjamin Franklin and his friends operated library company of Philidelphia. Andrew Carnegie gave millions to bring books and information to the people. From Gail SakuraÃ¢â¬â¢s Library of Congress Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas Jefferson had retired from the presidency and was living at Monticello, his home in Virginia. He offered to sell his personal book collection to the library of congress as a quick way to quickly replace the libraryÃ¢â¬â¢s losses.Ã¢â¬ The library of congress was set on fire on August 24, 1814. Some assume that the British had done it. Due to the efforts of our leaders, today the library of congress is the world largest library. It contains 100 million items, including 29 million books and pamplets, 53 million manuscripts and 4 million maps and atlases which are shelved in three buildings in Washington DC. My fifth objective was to volunteer at Columbia Pike Library. I started doing it in October and I will continue to do it after Senior Project .I worked in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s section where putting books back on the shelves, finding books for them and displaying them is the most important thing to do I also painted the walls of the library once and I decorated it by paper cutouts of different animals for the children. Sometimes on the weekends there is a story time in which teachers and students or parents and children come to the library, at that event I come earlier then usual and along with the other voluntee rs arrange the cookies and tables for the children and after they are done with it. I help to clean up the mess. My biggest obstacle was finding a job or volunteer work at a library, because since I just came in july and had never done volunteer work before, I was nervous and furustrated. I struggled hard to find a job, sometimes by searching on google and sometimes by going there like I went to Aurora Hills Library since it was close to my house but there was no volunteer work being offered at that time. I was not able to work at the school library, because they had another girl working there whose senior project was also on libraries. I thought about changing my Senior project but finally in October with the help of a friend of mine I was able to contact Barabara Dean the incharge of the Arlington Public Libraries and she asked me to contact Ms.Desiree Fairooz who was the incharge of Columbia Pike Library, she even gave me her e-mail address, and through that I was able toÃ finally start volunteering. My new skills are that I learned about the history of Library system in the US, I got to k now about virtual libraries and the qualifications required to become a librarian. I learned to make bookmark bibliographies and I learned how to do surveys, which I am sure I will need to do later in college and then in my career. I was thinking about printing out copies and then giving them to people but then my teacher told me about an online survey that was very useful, I just sent the link to my friends and I was able to get the results I needed, I am currently working on learning to make pamplets for the library. This project will help me by giving me volunteer hours which will help me get accepted in my desired college, because they require volunteer hours, The new skills I learned like making surveys, pamphlets and bookmark bibliographies will help me in college and later on in my life too, also the way the project is organized in a step wise manner with its deadlines, has shown me that putting everything till the last minute is not the solution, we should make achieve our targets by setting up a timetable and follow it. Works Cited Ã¢â¬ Library and Information Science, Second Edition (FergusonÃ¢â¬â¢s Careers in Focus)Ã¢â¬ Ferguson. 2nd ed. N.p.: n.p., May 1,2011.. Sakurai, Gail. The Library of Congress. New York: ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s, 1998. Print. Null, Kathleen Christopher., and Barb Lorseyedi. How to Write a Research Report. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 1998. Print. Zainebabrar18@yahoo.com. Ã¢â¬Å"E-mail.Ã¢â¬ Www.yahoo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. . http://akaleidoscopicworld.blogspot.com/2008/03/advantages-disadvantages-of-virtual.html http://www.collegeonline.org/library/adult-continued-education/librarians-needed.html http://mypages.iit.edu/~smart/halsey/lesson1.htm
Monday, September 16, 2019
During the nineteen century in America, Dark Romanticism was very popular. Dark Romanticism is a literary subgenre that emerges from Transcendentalism. Transcendentalism believed that to discover truth people must see beyond the physical world, also believed that people can find God directly on nature. Dark romanticism explores the conflict between good and evil and the psychological effect of sin and guilt in the human mind. One of the famous Dark romantic writers is Washington Irving. He is well known for his short stories and his unrealistic characters and his detailed description of nature. Irving develops the characteristic themes of dark romanticism through symbolism in Ã¢â¬Å"The Devil and Tom WalkerÃ¢â¬ . Many Dark romantics writer thought that nature had a spiritual influence over people, as a mysterious being. One of the main themes of the Dark Romanticism is nature. Irving describes with detail the nature setting around the characters. In this story Irving says Ã¢â¬Å"The swamp was thickly grown with great gloomy pines and hemlocks, some of them ninety feet high, which made it dark at noonday and a retreat for all the owls of the neighborhoodÃ¢â¬ . In this sentence he is describing the setting described as dark, decaying and mystifying. Another theme presented in this story is the presence of the devil. Irving gives the devil human qualities and describes him as a Ã¢â¬Å"great black manÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"neither Negro nor IndianÃ¢â¬ , with a Ã¢â¬Å"pair of great red eyesÃ¢â¬ and with an ax in his shoulder. The devil is said to have various names among the countries and he claims to have witness great battles and conflicts in America. Dark Romantics used images of evil in form of vampires, devils, ghosts and other human-characterized figures. In this case Irving uses the devil as a symbol of evil. Dark Romantics presents human beings as susceptible to sin. The author presents different sins in this story for exa mple, avarice. This sin was present in Tom Walker and also in his wife. In the story it said that the Ã¢â¬Å"husband was continually prying about to detect her secret hoardsÃ¢â¬ and there were conflicts about what Ã¢â¬Å"ought to have been common propertyÃ¢â¬ . This says that the woman hid things to her husband, in order to save it from herself. Dark Romantics explore the conflict between good and evil. In this case the devil wanted to make an agreement with Walker. At first Walker refused because he knew that when devil granted favors, there was one condition: he had to be at his service. The wanted him to become a slave trader, but he refused his proposal because he was against slavery. He instead became a usurer. When Tom Walker committed sins, he went to church to feel better about it. These visits to church are a symbol used to present guilt. He tried to focus in reading the Bible, but he kept censuring his neighbors and scamming his clients. He thought that every sin his neighbors committed became a credit in his own sins. Also, Walker tried to hide his guilt in his ostentation by building a great and incomplete house, just as Captain Kidd hid his treasure between the big trees in the forest. Washington Irving uses many symbols in this story to present the themes of Dark Romanticism. The forest is a symbol of the nature, and the devil is representative of the evil influence over the human being. WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s house represents a place to hide guilt and WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is a symbol of greed. Ã¢â¬Å"The Devil and Tom WalkerÃ¢â¬ describes very well the themes of Dark Romanticism.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Person centred Practice is very important within the care sector, it ensures that all service users have an equal and a big involvement when planning, developing and assessing their care needs. It means that we put the service user and their families at the heart of the decisions. It means that the service user is able to have more choice and control because they are influencing their own care plan to suit their individual needs. This is a key part of helping support and promotes independence and is effective as soon as we take on a new care package. The supervisor will complete a lengthy care plan prior to any care starting. It often involves the service user and close family members being present, each question within the care plan is answered by the service user and the family members, this means that when the care starts that we are ensuring we are meeting all of the service users needs. I understand that it is very important for service users to have shared decision making as they then feel equal in their care needs and included. At this stage the Supervisors get a chance to build up a trusting relationship with the service user and Person centred practice is providing care and needs which centres on the service user. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a way of caring for a person as an individual and putting them and their families at the heart of all decisions. Person centred practice put value to the independence, privacy, partnership, choice, dignity, respect and rights of the service user. 1.2 Critically review approaches to person centred practice The best ways to be person centred is to do the following: Discuss the service users strengths and make the most of them Communicate as well as you can at all times and always explain what you are doing and why you are doing it Always make the service users feel included at all times Help the service user do as much as they can for themselves (supporting independence) Common mistakes that care workers and other professionals often make, at times without realising are the following: Treating a service user like a child or speaking to them in a childlike fashion Use power to control the person. A service user who may have dementia, depression or a learning disability can be very vulnerable; therefore unknowingly a careÃ worker may slip into a Ã¢â¬Å"parentingÃ¢â¬ role and try to control situations. For example we have a service user who has learning disabilities; the regular care worker for this service user would always choose the clothes for this particular service user without asking the service user what they would like to wear. Due to the service user having very limited communication the only way the service user was unable to express their frustrations would be through actions. The care worker reported that the service user was showing signs of being angry by pulling things out of the carerÃ¢â¬â¢s hands and throwing them. I went to spot check a morning visit and found that although the relationship between the service user and carer was very good the care worker lacked in supporting choice and control. This was evidently frustrating the service user, therefore i asked the care worker to always give options, by taking out several outfits and allowing the service user to make a decision on the day to day activities. This gave the service user choice and control and a feeling of independence and inclusion, which should be supported at all times. 1.3 Analyse the effect of legislation and policy on person centred practice Legislations and policies such as: Mental capacity Act 006 Equality Act Human Rights Act 1998 Are just a few legislations that strongly reinforce choice and control for all service user and ensure that they are treated with dignity and respect and treated fairly at all times. At times, due to preventing service users causing any potential harm to themselves, for their best interest certain aspects and choices are made for them. In our company this usually relates to service users that may have mental health issues and dementia. The Mental Capacity Act was implemented in 2007 and seeks to empower and protect people who lack the capacity to make their own decisions. The five core principles that I work very closely with and communicate with all my team are the following: It is assumed that individuals have capacity unless an assessment has taken place that determines otherwise. Individuals must be given appropriate support to make a decision (before a judgement can be made that a person cannot do so) Individuals have the right to make a decision that seems unwise, does not mean that they lack the capacity to do so If itÃ is determined that an individual lacks capacity, any decision made on their behalf must be made in their best interests. Any actions taken in respect of the individual without capacity should be the least restrictive in terms of their basic rights and freedoms. Therefore at times person centred planning may be made by other professionals in order to maintain the well being and safety of a service user. But even though at times decisions may be made for service users because they lack the capacity to make some important ones, it should never be assumed that that are unable to make any decisions. 1.4Explain how person centred practice informs the way in which consent is established with individuals Person centered practice is also about keeping the choice of the individual firmly in their hands, and supporting and assisting them in taking and keeping control of their own lives. This is why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to know that a client is assumed to have capacity unless it is proved otherwise. He or she must be able to understand the information relevant to the decision, retain the information, use the information as part of the decision making process and communicate the decision. If someone is assessed as lacking capacity, it must be sought elsewhere, from the next of kin or other individual or team responsible for the care of that person and any decision taken on their behalf must be in their best interests. 1.5 Explain how person centred practice can result in positive changes in individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives Person-centred practice means giving individual valued roles, participation and belonging in the community, freely given relationships, greater authority over decisions about the way they live, genuine partnership between the service, themselves and or their family and allies, individualized and personalized support arrangements. All of these contributes in helping people get better lives, meaning that individual will have a real home, purpose, family, friends and acquaintances, control over the direction of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and future, good health, safety, security and justice which are all essential for both emotional and well being.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
How do you respond to the presentation of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife in Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢? Essay
CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is presented as quite an ambiguous character. She is seen in two ways: in one way she is seen as `jail baitÃ¢â¬â¢, a `tartÃ¢â¬â¢ and `trampÃ¢â¬â¢. In another way she is seen as a victim of a male society, the only female on the farm. Even as a main character in the novel, she remains nameless and only as `CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢. This makes her sound like CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s property like CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s horse or clothes. This is also symbolic of the role of women at the time in which Of Mice and Men was set. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is seen as a very promiscuous woman, but that is only because of the picture you build in your mind from the description of her flirtatious attitudes. Before we even meet CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife she is degraded by Candy, the `old swamperÃ¢â¬â¢. He accuses her of having Ã¢â¬Å"the eyeÃ¢â¬ even though she has been married two weeks: Ã¢â¬Å"You know what I think? Ã¢â¬ ¦ I think Curleys married a tart.Ã¢â¬ Candy says this becaus e, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife gives a few of the other workers Ã¢â¬Å"the eye.Ã¢â¬ or so he thinks. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife enters the bunkhouse; she uses the excuse that she is looking for Curley. She does not seem to want to leave. George tells her that he was here earlier. She still does not leave though, Ã¢â¬Å"she put her hands behind her back and leaned against the door frame so that her body was thrown forward.Ã¢â¬ This demonstrates her flirtatious nature. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife backs her story up by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"sometimes heÃ¢â¬â¢s in hereÃ¢â¬ looking at her hands as she does so. She finally leaves when George again tells her that Curley isnÃ¢â¬â¢t there. Ã¢â¬Å"Nobody canÃ¢â¬â¢t blame a person for looking.Ã¢â¬ CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife says this almost to protect herself, as if to say, nobody can fault her if she is only looking for her husband. When thinking about or looking at what CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is wearing, you would not associate it with every day life on a farm; she is out of place. Does this carry on throughout the story? Is she always out of place? Ã¢â¬Å"She had full rouged lips and wide-spaced eyes, heavily made up. Her fingernails were red. Her hair hung in little rolled cluster s, like sausages. She wore cotton house dress and red mules. On the insteps of which were little bouquets of red ostrich feathers.Ã¢â¬ The constant reminder of red gives us two ideas: one, red being used as the colour of passion. Yet another sign of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s flirtatious manner: two, red showing danger. All the signs of red could be a link to the red dress of the girl in Weed, where George and Lennie previously worked. Could there be a link? CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife recognises that her body and sexuality are her only weapons and sheÃ¢â¬â¢s using them. In SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s words Ã¢â¬Å"she had only one thing to sell and she knew it.Ã¢â¬ CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is portrayed as this `tartÃ¢â¬â¢ and `jail baitÃ¢â¬â¢ not purely by accident. This portrayal is purely through the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. The mere fact that she is known only as CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is a clear sign of her anonymity. She is given no name or in fact no identity. Is this hatred to women on SteinbackÃ¢â¬â¢s part, or is he addressing the stereotyp ical attitudes towards women? CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife like everybody else has dreams. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is to be a star. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife was asked to go on a show when she was younger, but her mother wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t let her. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife remembers a man in the Ã¢â¬Å"pitchers.Ã¢â¬ Said heÃ¢â¬â¢d write to her about becoming an actress and being in the movies. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife says that her mother stole the letter when it came, to stop her from reaching her dream, when it really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t come at all. Ã¢â¬Å"Well I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t gonna stay no place where I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get nowhere or make something of myselfÃ¢â¬ ¦ so I married CurleyÃ¢â¬ this gives a strong impression that she married Curley purely out of spite, toward her mother. She goes on to say that Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢ like CurleyÃ¢â¬ this confirms the fact that she married him out of spite. Like the rest of the dreams in of Mice and Men hers so far has failed. Ã¢â¬Å"I coulda made somethin of myselfÃ¢â¬ ¦ maybe I will yet.Ã¢â¬ But CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is still holding on to a faint glimmer of hope. This may explain CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour on the ranch; she may see it as a stage and the workers as her audience. In chapter four our attitudes towards CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife change dramatically throughout. In the beginning a feeling of sympathy and loneliness is aroused, because of her failed dreams and the way her husband treats her or rather doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t treat her Ã¢â¬Å"Think I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where they all went?Ã¢â¬ Curley and the other ranch workers are spending their evening in a brothel. Toward the end a feeling of hatred or dislike is built up, beginning with her flirtatious manner to Lennie, ending with her racial abuse and threats towards Crooks: Ã¢â¬Å"I could get you strung up on a tree so easy it aint even funny.Ã¢â¬ This is another sign of the society at that time. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife mocks the dream of George, Lennie and Candy, saying that they almost had better things to spend their money on: Ã¢â¬Å"BaloneyÃ¢â¬ ¦ I seen too many you guys. If you had two cents in the worlÃ¢â¬â¢ why youÃ¢â¬â¢d be getting two shots of cornÃ¢â¬ ¦ And sucking the bottom of the glass.Ã¢â¬ This is a clear sign, to the reader, of her naivetÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½. Here she is mocking others dreams, when not so long ago her dream shattered around her. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s death can be looked upon in many different ways. From the way the other characters are seen to respond, it is as if they are the victims of the death and not her. The way in which the author describes the body is the opposite: Ã¢â¬Å"She was very pretty and simple, and her face was sweet and young.Ã¢â¬ This would suggest an innocent frame of mind, as if her death had transformed her. To someone or something better. Even though CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is dead, she is still subject to blame. Candy is one of those who feel this way, talking to the lifeless body Ã¢â¬Å"You done it, diÃ¢â¬â¢nÃ¢â¬â¢t you? I sÃ¢â¬â¢pose youÃ¢â¬â¢re glad. Everybody knowed youÃ¢â¬â¢d mess things up. You wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t no good. You aint no good now, you lousy tart.Ã¢â¬ When the `guysÃ¢â¬â¢ find out about her death, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that Curley seems to realise that his wife is dead. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop to mourn at all, or hold her one last time, as any self-respecting man would do. He is only interested in one thing, revenge. In conclusion CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is seen as an ambiguous character. Her moods and mannerisms change throughout the novel. She is presented, as somebody that no one likes not even her own husband. I think this is character is very misunderstood and if anyone was to take the time to get to know her a little better IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife could be a very `niceÃ¢â¬â¢ person.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Roman Persecutions of Christians - Essay Example Many historians are of the opinion, that the Romans believed that the neglect of the old gods who had made Rome strong, was responsible for the disasters that Rome faced. Is it then safe to assume that the persecutions of Christians, stemmed from a distrust of something alien to the Romans, or were there other causes for these persecutions? The persecutions began slowly but after the middle of the third century, were initiated intensively by some of the Roman emperors. In the beginning, these persecutions were generally a result of personal hostilities between people, where the real issues were hidden behind the excuse of their being of a different faith. However, slowly Christians began to be looked upon as people who took part in weird rites, like partaking of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s flesh and blood, that was mistaken for cannibalism. The distrust grew as Christians refused to take part in the pagan rites of sacrifice to Roman gods, and to the emperor who was considered a semi divine being . This was considered an insult to the gods who looked after the well being of the people, and therefore endangered the empire.There were also other reasons why the people considered the Christians unpatriotic. The Romans took pride in their Roman citizenship, while the Christians declared that they were citizens of heaven. They also shrank from obligations of public and military service. However, a closer look at the events that preceded the persecutions, paints a different picture. Persecutions were generally sparked off by certain events that went against an emperor. Is it then possible that periods of crisis like a threatening invasion, or an economic or political instability, were triggers that led to these persecutions? This seems to have been the case in the persecutions that took place when a disastrous fire broke out in Rome during the reign of Nero. The first persecution sanctioned by an emperor was in A.D. 64 by the eccentric emperor Nero. During the early years of NeroÃ¢ â¬â¢s reign, he was guided by the wisdom of his tutor Seneca and Burrus. By A.D. 62, Burrus died and Seneca retired, after which the wise constraints on NeroÃ¢â¬â¢s eccentric character were gone, and Nero was free to indulge himself . The costly war against Parthia and the revolts in Britain had drained the treasury and the Roman empire was in turmoil. Against this background, Nero was more interested in poetry, music and such other pursuits, and surrounded himself with frivolous and riotous companions that offended the public. His extravagances only served to further drain the imperial coffers, and taking advantage of his inattention to affairs of state, rebellions began to erupt. In the midst of these distressing events, Rome suffered the most disastrous fire in its history. Nero had become so unpopular, that people believed he had started the fire in order to be able to rebuild the city in the Greek style that he greatly admired, and also build a new and grand palace for hims elf. Although historians are unanimous in their opinion that Nero gave help to those left homeless in the fire and also rebuilt the city excellently; the rumor that the fire was the act of the self indulgence of the ruthless tyrant Nero, refused to die down. Unable to find other means of convincing his people that he was not responsible for the fire, Nero played on the fears of the people and made scapegoats of the Christians,
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Fords Advertising Strategy in India - Research Paper Example The Indian economy is growing at a rate of 10% since the last 5 years (Uppal, et al, 2009). Apart from the growing middle class, India also features a strong upper class leading it to the fourth largest country with the highest number of billionaires. This makes India a lucrative market for high-end and premium brands as well. Besides being on the road of economic improvement, India also is a democratic state which encourages foreign direct investment. After a long isolation from international trade, India finally has opened its gates for foreign brands which leave a huge opportunity of the international giant corporations to capture their share of the market (Uppal, et al, 2009). As mentioned above, the high income earners of the country along with the growing middle class constitutes a high overall spending power and this fact makes it one of the most lucrative markets in South Asia and the whole world. In contrast to having a strong appeal to international businesses, India does h ave some factors which put a negative impact on its business environment. One of the problems which India faces is unimpressive law enforcement by the Indian judiciary. This is prevalent predominantly because of resource limitations and long procedures fashioned by corruption. However, in order to keep the consumers safe and to increase their confidence, exclusive courts catering to consumer needs and concerns have begun to be set up (Uppal et al, 2009). The elements which Ford must take care of while designing and executing its advertisements is the target segment which must targeted. As mentioned above, India has a growing economy with majority of a middle class and a high proportion of youth, the brands must be appropriately positioned in order to get the most business out of a segment. This means that a premium brand for example Mustang must not be positioned amongst the middle class as it will not be feasible for the company in terms of revenue. Therefore, considering the busin ess environment of India, the advertisements must have relevance to the lifestyle of the market. This suggests that if the target market does not drink, the advertisement must not show any reference to drinking otherwise, the brand will not have any receptive and relevance to the target market. Besides this, the idea of an advertisement must be in line with the culture and expectations of the audience. In order to be generally acceptable and receptive to the audience, the advertisement must clearly portray the true depiction of the lifestyle of the target market. Be it the fashion, models, lifestyle, language etc, every element of the ad must have a relevance to the target market else the brand will not be accepted and will not sell. 2. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Advertising Industry IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising industry is on the boom. From being a small scale business to a fully fledged industry, the Indian advertisement has become a world in itself. It is now considered as one of the major ind ustries of the tertiary sector of India with worth $6.4 billion. Apart from the traditional print and electronic media, the advertising industry of India is registering enormous growth of the social media. The internet is increasingly becoming an important tool for businesses to sell their product and for the advertisers to market their brands. The fact that the internet has become a marketplace itself has been well adopted by the Indian adverti
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Soap Opera developed from the American radio serials in the 1930s to a major global television genre. Trace it s development a - Essay Example These ongoing serials, which first appeared on radio and later on television, were called Ã¢â¬Å"soap operasÃ¢â¬ because the leading soap manufacturers such as P&G, Lever Brothers, Colgate and others were the major advertisers, producers and financers of these soap operas (Katzman, 1972, p. 210). By the 1930s, most of the networks and advertisers were realising the potential and the size of the daytime market, as most men would spend their daytime on their job and children would spend most of the morning and afternoon at school and playing outside, which left the women and homemakers as an enormous untapped market (Baym, 1996, p. 149). Soap operas provided these networks to tap into this market and attract the advertisers since these women made most of the important purchasing decisions in their homes. Furthermore, with the advent of television and its widespread distribution and use in industrialised and modern economies, advertisers began to focus on developing soap operas on te levision and it is on television that the genre of soap opera has developed and nurtured (Nariman & Rogers, 1993, p. 152). This paper will make a brief attempt at exploring and analysing the development and evolution of soap operas in the global television industry with highlighting the significant and noteworthy changes that have taken place over the past few decades in terms of the format and content of soap operas. Discussion For the most part, a crucial defining element of soap operas has been its open-ended narrative nature, where the story line has the potential to go into so many directions. Every episode ends in such a way that it does need to explicitly run a ticker saying, Ã¢â¬Å"To be continuedÃ¢â¬ because the viewers easily infer that the story will move on to several upcoming episodes. A soap opera may have several parallel story lines, which may intersect with each other and shape each other. Soap opera are least likely to bring all of their storylines to conclusion during the show and even if one storyline moves towards its conclusion, the other storyline is likely to take its place (Nariman & Rogers, 1993, p. 152). During the early years, when the soap operas represented stage plays and theatre settings, the actors relied heavily on blocking techniques. Every now and then, during conservations between characters, one character would suddenly change his or her direction so that they could both face the camera or the stage at the same time (Matelski, 1988, p. 37). The conversation or dialogue delivery, which takes place in such a setting, is not at all realistic but this was a technique which was heavily relied upon during the early years when most of the soap operas were shot in live format. The same does not apply to soap operas and television dramas of today, whether they are using single camera or multi camera format (Liebes & Livingstone, 1998, p. 68). During much of the 1940s-1960s, many of the soap operas never left interior settings or were shot in fictional settings of Midwestern midsized towns. Furthermore, since most of the early actors that took part in these soap opera were theatre actors, the focus remained on live broadcasting in order to provide a
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Markets As A Form Of Production, Use And Consumption.The Meaning Of Property And Water Rights - Article Example This much is seen as acceptable to most theorists and economists, but the motive behind the marketing function is not. Adam Smith, considered to be the father of modern economics, stresses that division of labor which is characteristic of a reasonably large market has come about due to the propensity of man to barter excess goods in exchange for other commodities which he needed for his family needs. He adds that man is motivated by the element of profit in marketing and that the price fixed for a commodity should essentially have a margin over and above the input costs of labor and rent. According to him, "the whole price of any commodity must still finally resolve itself into some one or other or all of these three parts; as whatever part of remains after paying the rent of the land, and the price of the whole labor employed in raising, manufacturing, and bringing it to market, must necessarily be profit to someone" (Smith 22). Smith goes on to argue that this propensity for barter ing and profit will best be supported by a free market economy. Economists over the years have subscribed or gone against this view. But here again, only very few have really contradicted Smith's views on bartering and profit. Marx stated that such a situation will result in greed and eventual exploitation of workers. But two prominent writers namely Karl Polanyi and Robert Heilbroner vehemently argue that a study of history of markets around the world, even in the famous ancient kingdoms goes against the view of Smith with regard to marketing and bartering. The views of these two writers will be analyzed to review the distinguishing features of the new market economy in comparison with earlier market systems followed. The paper also tries to make a comparative study between Donald Worster's view on water as a commodity and Marx's own views. Polanyi had definitive views on marketing motivations and customs regarding the evolution of marketing and states that the views of other theorists on this area were erroneous in a number of areas. As an economist, Polanyi is known for his substantivist approach, a situation where the marketing function was closely aligned with culture, social practices and beliefs of a particular community. The author states that "to start with, we must discard some nineteenth century prejudices that underlay Adam Smith's hypothesis about primitive man's alleged predilection for gainful occupations" (Polanyi 45). He goes on to argue that the current market environment is of recent origin and that most of Europe followed the same standards and sophistication carried on from over the centuries with very little change. To substantiate this, he studies various civilizations and societies from a variety of periods and regions and provides specific examples. In essence marketing has a social function base d on survival and growth of the society rather than for individual gain. Polanyi agrees to the fact that a marketing function is essential in organized societies, but its aim is for overall benefit and growth. A person is expected to share his surplus commodities, whether it is an agricultural or animal product. This generosity will enhance his position in the society. Its benefits are not immediate, but will only come at a later stage, when others respond to this generosity by helping him out with his needs of the time. There are two ways in which this can happen. It can come from individual or common reciprocation. In other words, a particular individual who has benefited from an act of generosity will respond when in a position to reciprocate. The society will also have a common store of products which is
Monday, September 9, 2019
Adding value through marketing - Essay Example In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, consumers are being bombarded with a multitude of products and services with the entailing cacophony of messages that vie for attention. The result is an increasing confusion and indifference on the part of the buying publicEvaluate the extent to which a sustainable and green approach to marketing can add positively to the bottom line in an age of consumer confusion and possible indifference. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, consumers are being bombarded with a multitude of products and services with the entailing cacophony of messages that vie for attention. The result is an increasing confusion and indifference on the part of the buying public. This can breed consumer discontent that, in itself, is becoming increasingly difficult to address. According to Kaptan (2003), if this confusion, indifference and discontent are not dealt with successfully, any relief created will be transitory and that later on new symptomatic issues and complaints would arise. (p. 45) Ther e is, hence, a need to introduce products and services and build brands that aim to rise above the rest. This objective is best served by adopting sustainable and green approach to marketing. The Concepts Essentially, green marketing is the holistic marketing concept wherein production, marketing consumption and disposal of products and services happen in a manner that is less detrimental to the environment, especially with growing awareness and consideration to prominent environmental issues like global warming, non-biodegradable solid waste, harmful impact of pollutants, and so forth. (Chandrasekar 2009, p458) Sustainability follows and reinforces the same principle, and is characterized by activities that seek to change existing framework in favour of sustainability. (Saren et al., p205) Pursing this strategy is significant to consumers for several reasons. The most important of these include: its contribution to the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"empowermentÃ¢â¬ since it allows the consumer to make a difference by using Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ products and services; and, it provides credibility since sustainability related claims can make consumers believe and trust in the product. (Ottman 2011, p110) The gist of the benefits of sustainable and green marketing is that their associations with the positive impact to environment provides a product or brand a mantle of uniqueness and responsibility that adds value in the eyes of the buyers. Successful sustainable and green campaigns include the LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s recently launched Eco line of 100 percent organic cotton jeans; Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"GreenÃ¢â¬ push consisted of diverse initiatives such as reducing energy waste, opening green supercenters, stocking more organic products, and working with suppliers to get them on board as well. (Hawkins & Mathersbaugh 2010, p102) Ottman emphasized that sustainable and Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ products offer tangible and direct benefits that are actually meaningful and importa nt to a number of consumers. (p110) Making a Difference The principles at work here is that green products can rise above the din of commerce that are peppered with superficial solutions to individual needs. Slater pointed to the social dilemma that emerges as a consequence. In his view, the production of more goods and services that provide false satisfactions to human needs in greedy pursuit for profit contribute to the increasing disorganization, disorientation and confusion not just with regards to their needs but also their identities. (p126) In the past, marketing and advertising could have gotten away with it with what Slater called as: an innumerable series of images are forced upon the individual, like mirrors, seemingly empathetic and totally credible, which bring their secrets to the surface and display them there. In these images, people are continually shown the unfulfilled aspects of their existence. The illusion ingratiates itself, promising satisfaction; it reads des ires in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, and brings them to the surface of commodity. (p126) The problem now is that consumers have been satiated with these messages and strategies. This and the crass materialism had not satisfied many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s innermost desires. (Sattar 1992, p. 41) One may say that, today, the average buyer is both aware and confused about the way products are pandered to him. Slater