Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Marketing Strategy of Viet Nam Toyota Inc

TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION1 1. Overview Toyota motor Corporation1 2. Overview Toyota motor Viet Nam2 3. Literature review2 4. Purpose of this research paper2 II. METHOD3 III. MATERIAL4 IV. RESULT5 1. Personal information5 2. Research information6 V. REFERENCE 13 VI. APPENDIX15 * Questionnaire15 INTRODUCTION Toyota motor Corporation, abbreviated TMC, is a multinational automobile manufacturers headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. The company was founded by  Kiichiro Toyoda  in 1937 as a spinoff from  his father's  company  Toyota Industries  to create automobiles.Toyota Motor Corporation  (TMC) is the world’s largest automobile manufacturers, selling over 8. 4 million vehicles in 2010 on all five continents. Toyota today has 77 manufacturing companies in 27 countries and markets vehicles in more than 170 countries worldwide, supported by a consolidated workforce of approximately 320,000 people. A very efficient management style that the company uses has b een one of the reasons for the firm’s good performance. There are many other salient factors that have made the company achieve the niche of market leader. The market structure the company operates in cannot be definitely stated.Some may consider it to be a monopoly. This is due to the fact that the company is a dominant market player in car exportation. In fact, its differentiation strategy has made it enjoy an almost monopolistic presence especially in the developing nations of the world. On the other hand, the market structure can be seen as an oligopoly. This is due to the fact that there are other key players like GM who are peer competitors. Toyota is keen to see what these competitors are doing and make sure it reacts to their actions in a way that will guarantee its market leadershipWith their consistency in innovating designs and over a billion dollars spent in advertisement a year, Toyota has become an attraction in the eyes of many auto consumers worldwide. Toyota has built its reputation not only by producing high quality vehicles at affordable prices, but the brand and marketing skills they use through tactful pricing strategies. Toyota has differentiated their prices from the traditional pricing set up of many of the other automobile makers. However, it is their effectiveness in targeting consumers' needs and wants that has pushed them to the top.Toyota motor Viet Nam ( TMV) was established on September 5,1995 ( official opening in October 1996 ) . In Viet Nam, Toyota is one of the most famous car brands, accounting for a large market share in the market, with many kinds of car that meet the needs of Vietnamese consumers. Joining the automobile market since its initial days, up to now, TMV has incessantly developed both in sales, production scale and labor force. According to Forture magazine’s (Published global business magazine). The key to success of Toyota corporations is not only style quality but also due to many reasons.One o f the main reason for success of TMV is that they concentrate on marketing and promotion plan for their products. This is a sound strategy that brings TMV to success. This study will show the importance of marketing strategy of Viet Nam Toyota Inc. METHOD Our 5-year research of Toyota Marketing Strategies in Viet Nam began in the summer of 2005 and ended in the fall of 2010. The subjects were selected from Toyota Ben Thanh, known as the best-selling and the largest agent of Toyota in southern region. This research surveyed 100 people.The major subjects were sales representatives of the agent, staffs of the marketing department and customers. In which, 30 sales representatives were chosen on the following criteria: having good achievement in the agent and receiving good feedback from customers. 70 selected customers were those who had demand of buying car and those who were the agent’s close customers or potential customers. The instrument employed in this study was interviews and survey (questionnaire). A set of 20 questions closely linked to the study was given to each subject. The interview with some random questions was based on subject’s characteristics (e. . job, department, product evaluation, income, etc). This survey took one week to get the feedback for evaluating and judgment. The questionnaire was also performed in online version under the help of Google Docs (https://docs. google. com/) and shared on social network Google+â„ ¢. All collected data was digitalized and statistics were made using Microsoft ® Excel and IBM ® SPSS ® Statistics software. MATERIAL Observations were made at customers shopping at the Toyota Company in order to learn the consumers’ attentions on products and their final decisions.The opinions of customers were collected by questionnaire and interview. In the questionnaire, there are two main parts that are personal information section and research information section separated. The personal infor mation part was designed to collect some private information of participants, particularly age, gender, and job. And the research information part which consisted of 20 research questions is divided into 4 main groups as follows: Group 1 (question 1 to 3) was designed to collect some private information of participants. Besides, it is used to define the customer’s demand and finance.From this we can find latent customers of the company. Group 2: (question 4 to 7) was to identify how customers get information about the product of Toyota companies. And we can know the marketing method Toyota company has used that brings the most effective result Group 3: (question 7 to 12) aimed at the opinions of customers after using Toyota corporations’ products. It is not only used to assess the quality, services but also the attitude of the staff. Group 4: (question 13 to 20) was used to get the complain from the customers and what they expect to the products and service in the futu re.From this we can identify the way to develop the company. RESULT * Part 1: Personal information Chart 1 – Gender Chart 1 indicates the participation of male and female in shopping through the Toyota system. It shows that not only women who have shopping habit but also men took a significant part of using toyota products (male accounts for 63% and female accounts for 37%). Chart 2 – Customers Besides, chart 2 displays the percentage of participants’ customers in shopping through the Toyota system in which business and office staffs are accounted for a large percentage (45% of business and 37% of office staffs).Meanwhile, other job also accounted for a considerable portion (18%), in which include singer ,actor, footballer,†¦ etc. * Part 2:Research information Why do more consumers choose Toyota? The same reasons the critics do. Toyota leads the pack in fuel efficiency, durability, popularity and safety. Toyota is the most fuel-efficient full line automaker in America. Plus, Toyota is the number 1 selling brand of hybrids – Toyota has more hybrids on the road than all other manufacturers combined. Moreover, Toyota has the greatest durability of any manufacturer.With the highest percentage of vehicles sold over the past 20 years still on the road among major manufacturers. And Toyota is the first manufacturer to include Star Safety System features standard on all vehicles. That's just part of the reason why Toyota has more vehicle listed on the top 10 of least expensive cars to insure than any other brand. Otherwise,  Toyota's received more 2010 JD Power & Associates Vehicle Dependability Awards than any other brand. Toyota has the largest number of vehicles on Cars. com's top 10 American Made Index.Seven Toyota vehicles have won IntelliChoice's Best Overall Value award for their segments. And Toyota is the highest-ranking auto company on Bloomberg Businessweeks' 2010 list of the 50 Most Innovative Companies. Chart 3 displays the customers’ criteria of choosing Toyota products which was divided into four main elements: benefit, price, companies’ reputation and quality. Over a half of them was preferred products’ quality (56. 25%) to price (21. 8%), companies’ reputation (12. 5%) and benefit (9. 37%). This finding shows that the consumers’ priority concern was products’ quality which conflicts with their experiences.Market Program This consists of the four marketing mix elements that are designed to fit the market in terms of their needs and ability to access such products and services. * Product Strategy The Company is believed to be moving with a strategy of mass production of which it has enabled it to sell widely in the global market. It has also included the strategy of hybrid product, where it can double the amount of production for the arising needs in the market. * Price Strategy The reputation of the Company has been developed by producing high quality ve hicles that can be bought at a reasonable price.The Company has also been using tactful pricing strategies through price differentiation so that they are different from other automobile producers. * Location Strategy Being a global producer and supplier of Toyota automobiles and their components, Toyota Company has positioned itself all over the world giving it a clear cut within the market. Within three years to come, it is working towards the achievement of about 35 percent of the market share, and this will make it to be best and top supplier of automobile products. * Promotion StrategyThe Company is determined to use a pricing mechanism that will give it a competitive edge over its main competitors. This is a mechanism that it is using to market itself so that it can get hold of market share that will see it better in achieving the highest level in the market. Marketing Implementation Analysis Toyotas main focus will be in reaching the new markets of China and Europe. It will al so be concerned about the competition from other firms like Ford and GM. An advantage the company has is the widely differentiated product range.Establishing new factories in these new markets as well as opening up new franchises will help the company in getting an ease of penetrating the new markets Human resource is one of the most important aspects in this plan. The company should always make sure they have highly motivated staff as this is directly proportional to good production both in the qualitative and quantitative aspects. Toyota can do this by coming up with schemes of rewarding their employees like helping them own cars subsidized rates. The company should also make sure the personnel are the best in terms of technical know-how.The company needs to carry out frequent training towards this end. Tactical Marketing Activities Toyota has taken a bold step in being a leader in sustainable development. This position will need some innovations which translate to expenditure. Th ey are however necessary as a way of staying ahead of competition. The activities the company will embark on are given in chart 4 Chart 4: Tactical Marketing activities Specific Tactical Activities| Person/DepartmentResponsible| RequiredBudget millions of yen| CompletionDate| Product Activities1. Car air conditioning compressor2.DC-DC converters for fuel efficiency 3. Low Exhaust Emission Engine | Production engineers and Product management| 30. 45| 2011| Pricing Activities1. New Technologies2. Compression of Production platforms3. Merger of Assembly points| Operations management| 15. 25| 2012| Distribution Activities1. Opening up of new factory in America and china2. Machine handling3. Logistical operations| Logistics management| 21. 40| 2010| IMC (Promotion) Activities1. Concerts2. Volunteer3Youth Invention club| Marketing manager| 9. 20| 2012| Implementation PlanThere are a number of activities that have been projected within a life span of three years and the following represent ation shows the aspects that have been targeted and within what strategic period of time. Year| To be Achieved| New Targeted Markets (millions)| Cumulative Targeted Markets (millions)| Today (2010)| Working towards hybrid products| 250| 250| 1st Year (2011)| Introduction of pricing mechanism and price differentiation strategies. | 320| 600| 2nd Year (2012)| Enhancing hybrid products by use of new technologies| 370| 970| 3rd Year (2013)| Product differentiation to meet the needs of the market| 420| 1320|REFERENCE 1. Armstrong, G. , ; Kotler, P. (2002). Marketing: an introduction (International edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://www. pearsonhighered. com/educator/product/Marketing-An-Introduction-7E/9780131424104. page 2. Armstrong, G. , ; Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing: an introduction. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://html-pdf-converter. com/en/convert? u=search-pdf-books. com/philip-kotler,-and-gary-armstrong. -m arketing-management. -prentice-hall,-2003-download-pdf-free-pdf/ 3. Chamberlin, P. (2009).Customer service complaint handling. New York: The Gurdian. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://www. impactfactory. com/p/customer_service_skills_training_development/issues_936-2103-87287. html 4. Hiroshu O. (2003). Chairman’s message. Retrieved September 30th 2010, from the Toyota company website. http://www. toyota. co. jp/en/ir/library/annual/pdf/2003/chairmans_message_e. pdf 5. Levitt, T. (1975). Marketing myopia. Harvard business review , 26-40. Retrieved   October 7, 2010 from http://www. casadogalo. com/marketingmyopia. pdf 6. Johannes, G. , Bill, K. , ; Plenert. (2000).Finite capacity scheduling: management selection and implementation. New York: John wiley ; sons Inc. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://search. barnesandnoble. com/Finite-Capacity-Scheduling/Gerhard-Plenert/e/9780471352648 7. Porter, M. (1996). What is strayegy? Harvad business review , 61-69. Retrieved Oc tober 7, 2010 from http://www. ipocongress. ru/download/guide/article/what_is_strategy. pdf 8. Shaffer, J. (2003). Communicating for business results: how to choose and execute communication projects that dramatically help company. Journal of employee communication management , 34-36. . Thomas, J. G. (2001). Business planning: long range and strategic management. Dublin: Black Hall Publishers Ltd. Retrieved October 7, 2010 from http://books. google. co. ke/books? id=MiR2ls7Uyo8C;dq=Business+planning:;source=gbs_navlinks_s APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE Name of the consumer: ________________________________ Age: ______ Sex: _______ Address: ______________________________________ City: ________________ State: ___________________ Zip: _________________ Telephone: ____________________ Fax: ____________________________ Email: _________________________ 1.In what type of business, industry or profession do you work? (Please check one. ) 0 Agriculture/forestry/construction 1 Data processing/compute rs 2 Finance/banking/insurance 3 Health care (medical, dental, etc. ) 4 Real estate 5 Wholesale trade 6 Retail trade 7 Other: ______________ (please specify) 8 Communications/publishing/advertising 9 Education 10 Government/public administration 11 Manufacturing 12 Personal/business services (consultant, CPA, lawyer, etc. ) 13 Transportation/public utilities 2. What is your position? (Please check only one. ) 14 Chairman of the Board 15 Owner/Partner 6 Other Company Officer (V. P. , Treasurer, etc. ) 17 Manager 18 Scientist or Engineer 19 Sales 20 Clerical 21 Other: _______________ (please specify) 22 President/CEO 23 Director 24 Department Head 25 Supervisor/Foreman 26 Other administrative position not mentioned 27 Technical Specialist 28 Retired 3. What is your total annual household income? (Include income from all family members and all sources—salary, bonuses, investment income, rents, royalties, et 29 Less than $30,000 30 $40,000 – $49,999 31 $60,000 – $74 ,999 32 $100,000 – $149,999 33 $250,000 – $499,999 34 $1 million or more 4.How often do you see the advertisement of Toyota Corporation ? * Once in a day * More than 5 times * Not even once 5. Please state where you first heard about companies. * Infomercial: ________  Radio ad: _______  Newspaper ad: _______ * Internet: ________  Sales agent: ________  Company rep: ________ * A friend: ________  Family member: ________  Other (specify): ________ 6. Did the ad provide relevant information about the product? * Excellent * Very good * Not appealing at all 7. Are the claims made in this advertisement believable? * Very believable * Not believable * Can't say 8. How is our customer service? Very good * Average * Poor 9. Does the marketing team act like professionals? * Yes * No 10. Please rate your satisfaction with the quality of our products. * Excellent * Very good * Average * Poor 11. Please rate your satisfaction with the delivery system of our products. * Excellent * Very good * Average * Poor 12. Please state the best aspects of our products ______________________________ 13. Please state the worst aspects of our products ______________________________ 14. List any other features that you would like to see in our services or products ______________________________

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

How compatible is someones personality in accordance to the organizational culture Essay

Upon commencing my research on this topic, I decided to place myself in the â€Å"shoes of a worker† and having had previous work experience myself, I have explored this question in depth, on both a personal and academic level. For instance, many a times I have stopped in the middle of work and asked myself, â€Å"Why do I continue to work for this organization?† When I try to promote my ideas, do my peers frequently react with indifference? It is matters such as the above that workers all over the world question about on a daily basis, or simply, one can question, how compatible is their personality in accordance to the organizational culture of the company for which they work in. New technology creates jobs, which do not require any sort of face-to-face communication. This has undeniable consequences for the relationships that form in corporations. The increased use of technology such as the Internet and Microsoft applications means that it is harder for employees to approach their manager’s and express a problem, since their nature of work is for the most part confined to their offices. In introducing the term â€Å"culture† which simply means: an â€Å"identification badge† that distinguishes between groups of individuals and provides guidelines concerning patterns of behavior and perception of the world around. The cultural match between an individual and an organization is determined by the degree to which the individual’s personal traits fit the organizational culture, or perhaps vice versa. Cooperation between the manager and his subordinate must exist, meaning that either one would willingly lower the priority of one’s own personal needs in order to get along with others. A lower cultural match may indicate that the individual is drained of important resources by having to continuously adjust to the workplace environment. A higher cultural match suggests the potential for a more satisfying interaction for both the individual and the organization. For some people, a personal/culture fit may exist only in the functional area in which they work. For example, an adventurous and non-conformist individual could match the less risk-averse, more creative subculture of the Design department of a clothing company, even though the overall company might be rigidly structured and have a low comfort level with certain ambiguity. It is generally assumed that a successful relationship between an individual and an organization (the manager) is based on a shared foundation of beliefs and behaviors. Similar beliefs and ways of working usually encourage communication and tend to support the working relationship, allowing synergies to emerge. In contrast, a high level of dissimilarity usually requires a high consumption of adaptive energy. While a large base of similarities may enable successful and harmonious interaction, dissimilarities are also valuable. As organizations become increasingly inundated with new techniques and training programs designed to diversify their employee base, frustrations among workers increase while compromising decreases. Groups in favor of diversity feel that they are right in their call for race, sex, disability and age discrimination to be resolved by a bold corrective initiative often referred to as affirmative action. They claim that it is wrong to discriminate in any form. Diversity is a highly intense topic that, while embraced philosophically, it is quickly challenged once institutionalized. Diversity is recognized as an inevitable strategy for meeting the ever-changing demographics in society. It is then studied, is most often adapted as the solution and often the conclusion to problems of inequality in the workplace. Most organizations conclude with a formalized diversity initiative which focus is on diversity training, diversification (integration through hiring), and annual maintenance programs. Each of these initiative components becomes a part of a continuum, which is replicated annually. While this is truly deserving of much praise and support, many corporate leaders are beginning to ask probing questions†¦ Is this it? What do we do now? Therefore diversity training is necessary to assist in developing acceptance rather than tolerance. A change in attitude is necessary, and attitudes are changed when people begin to understand the â€Å"different† members of society and respect is shown towards them. A reality is that forward thinking companies have begun to realize that it is not enough for their employees to appreciate differences, but rather that the appreciation might be turned into a company benefit. They are the source of attraction, of added value and information exchange that give substance and fuel to the relationship. Many corporations have recognized that diversity contributes to the bottom line by making it easier to retain employees showing future potential, lowering costs by developing skills internally, and developing a reputation that helps attract new employees. This is especially significant in a time when the global economy is doing so well, not to mention that demand for skilled labor is at record levels. The key factors in a company’s success in managing knowledge workers will depend upon the level of a partnership existing between workers and management. It’s about support and understanding not control (The more supportive a manager is towards his/her employees, the easier their process of personal development becomes). In adopting this style of management; employees may see their managers’ taking on a dominant leadership role rather than the traditional management notion of â€Å"the Boss†. Managers must choose objectives, let people loose, to be creative. On the other hand when they make mistakes, managers should also recognize and offer counseling advice when necessary. These managerial skills (with the increasing focus on people rather than technology) are necessary in maintaining an organizational culture where people can flourish and achieve’ not only the company’s aims and objectives but furthermore, their own. In theory, working with the available staff that you (as a manager) retain, and pooling their diverse talents and skills to complete a task or assignment may be possible, but in my opinion, firms will miss out on a great opportunity to obtain more, fundamental employees, with a greater variety of skills. For instance, the company may choose to utilize and work with their existing employees, but by recruiting younger, more well-educated staff, or by diversifying and hiring different people with various ethnic backgrounds or more women they may find themselves in a more suitable, advantageous and moreover profitable position, as each of these people will bring a vast array of skills, experience and talent to their jobs. The ability of an employee to make a difference in the workplace or simply to have an influence upon his/her work is the extent to which individuals are able to influence outcomes within the organization. A high ability to influence suggests that the organization is open to input from a wide range of members and is willing to consider and react to those suggestions. A low ability to influence indicates a culture where most individuals have little chance to impact the outcomes. Decisions are made by a small group of individuals at the top who are not open to input from more than a select group of employees. The assumption is that the person with the most skill, intelligence, charm will succeed where others will fail. So that where competition is a fundamental feature of social and economic life, what you will get is competitive people and a model of the person, which is framed in terms of individual differences. So, in order to cope with the various characteristics of employees and the intense competition, managers should pinpoint the ones who get involved in many activities, have the ability to quickly establish relationships with others and lead fast-paced lives, so they can be set as group leaders. This trend in world economies has come to be coined by the popular phrase of â€Å"globalisation.† This for workers has a sense meaning of a worker that is an indeterminate, self-propelled character of world affairs. Nowadays, workplaces, in the era of high-value production in the age of services, require workers very different from those of just two decades ago- where a hierarchy structure was in place. This occurs when there is a distinct level of authority ranging from managing director, directors, managers and so on, with the managing director with the most authority over the rest of the company. The new structure in organization requires that the knowledge, information, and responsibility formerly handed down to managers is now (in theory at least) pushed down to the front-line workers. This, however, requires workers now who can learn and adapt quickly, think for themselves, take responsibility, make decisions, and communicate what they need to leaders who train, supply, and inspire them. The goal of social work is to strengthen people’s ability to cope with the task and problems they face in life and to promote improvements in the environment to more adequately meet human needs. The theory of social constructionism emphasizes that â€Å"our generation of knowledge and ideas of reality is sparked by social processes more than individual processes† (Gergen, 1994). According to constructionism, â€Å"knowledge is not something people possess somewhere in their heads, but rather, something people do together† (Gergen, 1985). Therefore, it is considered and viewed to be a collective procedure. For example, the idea that women â€Å"naturally† like to do housework is a social constructionist concept because this idea appears â€Å"natural† because of its historical repetition, rather than it being â€Å"true† in any essential sense. With regards to individualism as opposed to collectivism, one can state that the extent to which the members of the organization are encouraged or given incentives to focus primarily on personal gain (individualism) versus considering first the interests of the group as a whole (collectivism). Individualism includes a person’s values and standards being authentic, beliefs rooted in one’s spirit, embraced and put into practice as expressions of the self. According to Widdicombe, â€Å"The notion of positioning how it constructs persons has its roots in Althusser [whose] central thesis was that ideology ‘interpellates’ or ‘hails’ individuals into particular positions so that they come to have the kinds of identity which are necessary for social practices. As a result, â€Å"people are subjected and trained to recognize themselves in particular ways, and they are thereby produced as particular kinds of being predisposed to certain kinds of activity which fit with the demands of society,† which results in the â€Å"illusion that we have freely chosen our way of life†. One factor that corporations must take into consideration before recruiting an employee is the matter of â€Å"personality testing†. This method has become a routine part of corporate life. Soon it may be as universal as the employment interview or the team-building exercise. Every day, thousands of employees are asked to complete questionnaires about their likes and dislikes or probable reactions to different scenarios. Such as if you found yourself at a party, would you be more likely to linger at the edge of the room and avoid eye contact or to plunge into the crowd and mingle, making friends everywhere? Responses to questions like this may be used to answer other questions like â€Å"have you got what it takes to handle the pressure and be a trusted team-player?† Even though there are supposed to be no right answers, it’s often the case that these tests can be completed to produce a result that suggest you’re a charismatic, natural leader and all-round great person. Few people stop to question the outcome of these tests. After all, they seem to agree with thoughts we already have about ourselves. Personality tests are often believed to be scientific confirmation that you are indeed who you think you are. All though psychological analysis is very time-consuming and requires the personal involvement of experienced, highly qualified (and prohibitively expensive) professionals. There are no psychological tests that are cheap, quick and accurate all at the same time. However, anyone who is curious about their own personality has dozens of tests to choose from, all of which claim to answer some aspect of the question â€Å"who am I?† or â€Å"how will I behave and interact with other personalities†. These questions are more than essential to the employee’s self-image, role and function in the organisation as they help provide insight on matters that matter most to employees and in doing so may help them work more efficiently (if an employee is satisfied from their work and surroundings, they will strive more for excellence and approval within their jobs). Unfortunately, the outcome behind these measures of personality and aptitude tests is rather uncertain. Their theoretical foundations are rooted more in philosophy than fact and their accuracy suffers as a result. Nonetheless, this has not dissuaded thousands of people taking their results seriously. In conclusion, one’s success in the organization often goes beyond â€Å"doing a good job.† Frequently satisfaction with work comes from not only performing well, but also being comfortable with corporate values. It is essential, therefore, to examine the match between personal characteristics and organization culture. If the employee has to work utilizing his/ her ability for example (working with what you have) it does not mean that the employee cannot be better in his/her position and be productive with their current skills. Actually, my opinion is that employees need the assistance of the manager to become more relevant in the work place, in terms of achieving goals. One thing a manager could do is positively encourage the employees for the job that have accomplished, or try to explain the right way in which can they do so-providing support-if they fail. From one perspective, it is true to work with what you have, but on the other hand, this could occur at the beginning when you are a new worker, with advanced skills, starting fresh. We all us have an individual personality, but our personalities have stemmed from different environments such as: friends, parents, neighbors, etc. In my situation, when I go to work I am trying to use different personality which is not my real personality. for example, when I worked in class restaurant every time I have to smile and speak formally. It happens on numerous occasions, that when I went for work my mood was bad and also sometimes I was sad due to things I had said with my parents or from my girlfriend. This is my real personality, but when I have to go to the restaurant to work I have to change my personality and try to become exactly the opposite. This helps me in being real in the environment that matters the most to me and professional in my area of work.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Implementation and Control for Marketing Plan Assignment

Implementation and Control for Marketing Plan - Assignment Example For monitoring the task, it is proposed to have a cross-functional departmental team assigned to the project which will not just be responsible for having a check at the progress and comparing it against the proposed timeline for ensure timeliness but would also be responsible for regular feedbacks, which may lead to amendments in the marketing plan at any level, even if it is at the fundamental because the organization does not want itself launching a product that backfires and takes down the existing repute of the business as well. Miller (2002) states that 70% of the strategic plans containing various initiatives primarily fail due to factors contributing from the organization itself, the people (the employees) or the partners (share and stakeholders). In this scenario i.e. of SBA, the major participants are the marketing department personnel along with the organizations that are currently involved in the development of these games. Despite the great number of internal forces addition to the external factors, Hrebioniak (2006) conducted researchers to conclude some potential obstacles that hurdle the implementation of an effective strategy. Some of these that are associated with this case are: For overcoming these and several other forms of issues, it is recommended to serve the internal customers on top priority, making people realize that this is a business opportunity that would be beneficial for their organization in the long run and it is a window of opportunity that needs to be  exploited. The concept is similar to that of customer care, i.e. just as the external customers, the strategy to be implemented needs to be ‘sell’ to the internal customers to have a major impact towards its ease of application.  

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Application Letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Application Letter - Essay Example They are also a new working opportunity where one gets to meet people in the field of one’s career, get references from them boosting your resume, and even get new contacts that will enrich your career by being mentors or guides to landing that dream job. Also, internship is a field opportunity to apply knowledge previously acquired in class in an actual real life setting. This is a worth proving process on an individual’s qualifications assessed by ability to perform the various tasks given. Internship also plays a major role in the building of an individual’s confidence. Many PLATT departments must provide compliance training to keep PLATT employees up to date with new and changing laws and regulations. These departments have turned to Information Services (IS) department to develop a solution for efficient and cost effective method of providing online training videos to a wide audience as well as small target audiences. In order to avoid silo solutions, IS plans to implement a solution that could in the future, integrate into a broader Learning Management System. I would like to apply for a job at CISCO because currently, many departments provide live presentations of compliance training material to educate employees on recent laws and regulations but lack enough and qualified people to do the work. I will ensure that to cover the entire PLATT staff, they must present this material by attending numerous meetings across three different sites. It is significant to note that conducting live training is not the good way of using departmental resources. In addition, the inaccurate trackings of resources have made it difficult to determine which staff members have not been covered. Further, not all researchers attend presentation meetings thus making it difficult train all PLATT staff. In order to achieve efficiency, it is important for PLATT to adopt a more efficient and effective method of training

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Business Eithics (British Airways) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business Eithics (British Airways) - Essay Example This is because the directors and managers are charged with corporate governance by the owners of the entity and hence, one would expect them to be focused on meeting the best needs of the owners of the entity in question. The fundamental question is how do the people charged with corporate governance meet the best needs and expectations of the owners of an entity? There are two approaches to answering this question (Fernando, 2009). The first is the shareholder approach. Under the shareholder approach, a business has two fundamental objectives: to obey the law and to maximise shareholders wealth (Fernando, 2009). This approach suggests that managers need to put everything aside and only focus on profit maximisation. The second approach, which is known as the stakeholder approach states that the people charged with governance have a fundamental duty of maximising profits under the constraits of respecting the obligations owed to external stakeholders (Fernando, 2009). Freeman et al (2010) define stakeholders as â€Å"any group or individual that can affect or is affected by the achievement of a corporations purpose† (p86). This means that any entity that is within or outside an entity that is influenced or influences the activities of a company in its bid to meet its objectives is known as a stakeholder. In analysing the fundamentals of the key debates in this area, Mullerat identifies that the shareholder perspective is based on the short term vision of maximising returns on investment (2009). On the other hand, the stakeholder perspective supports a longer term theme of promoting sustainability in profit making and this is the best way to ensure that a business thrives into the future. British Airways is fundamentally operated as a company and thus, it has a profit motive which requires the management and those charged with governance to make

Friday, July 26, 2019

Tourism and Hospitality Marketing case study Essay

Tourism and Hospitality Marketing case study - Essay Example As a result, most of the entrepreneurs in this recent age desire to cope with the changing needs and requirements of the customers as well as marketing ideas. Nowadays, social media or online marketing is used for attaining the products and services of their choices. It is mainly due to the high craze for information technology within the target customers of the recent age. So, it is accepted as the most vital way of promoting any product or service of any organisation. Thus, from this it may be analysed that each and every generation or age group presents a unique style, experiences, values and demographics, thereby offering a high level of influence on the buying behaviours (Pires, 2006). In this regard, most of the companies of this age are targeting to approach multi-generational consumers so as to understand their behaviour and demands. Multi-generational or generational marketing acts as the practice of understanding the needs, style, values and behaviours of individuals within one or more than one particular group. This is done by the entrepreneurs or marketers to analyse the demands of the consumers, tailored according to their age groups. By doing so, a specific segment of customers is focused on by the organisation entirely based on the demographic and psychographic factors. As a result, the total sales of the organisation might be increased and result in amplification of its profitability and ROI in the long term. Concurrently, positioning of brands in the minds of the customers of an organisation might be effective. Consequently, the brand image and reputation might also be enhanced to a significant extent, which is extremely essential to sustain in the long run (Williams, 2006). Hence, due to these above mentioned advantages, the generational approach is adopted marketing in this recent age so as to remain competitive in the market among other rivals. At the same time, the level of reliability and trust within the minds of the customers also enhanc es, resulting in reduction of the switch-over rate. However, the generational approach to marketing comprises certain disadvantages as presented below. Always interested in the technologically advanced products or services The interest rate or demand for a particular product or service is extremely short term based Not at all loyal to the brands or the product lines of an organisation Switch-over rate is extremely high Highly influenced by word of mouth that is short-termed Highly influenced by friends’ or peers’ views and ideas Desires to experience innovative products and services of different organisations Therefore, due to all these disadvantages mentioned in the above paragraph, it may be inferred that the generational marketing approach is both advantageous and detrimental for an organisation in the long run (Cho & Woods, 2006). Answer 2 Sydney is the capital of the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is one of the most populous cities within Australia. It is located on the south eastern coast of the Tasman Sea. Sydney comprised a population of approximately 4.6 million in 2010. Besides, the city of Sydney also experiences a pleasant climate with a mild winter and warm summer along with frequent rainfall throughout the year. For this reason, the city remains cool in the entire year presenting a very good atmosphere to the

Retail Marketing (Britain hypermarket net Tesco) Essay

Retail Marketing (Britain hypermarket net Tesco) - Essay Example In the beginning of 1990th Tesco took up the small category of retail market for lower-income customers. More expensive line for well-off customers was concerned with J. Sainsbury and Waitrose. Comfortable location, competitive prices, polite staff, great variety of goods and products, mainly, circumspect development strategy helped Tesco to become a really national shop. It has happened neither due to only British goods are sold nor due to the state authorities discrimination of American "Wal Mart" or French "Carrefour. National brand buildup took place thanks to Tesco owners and managers, who understood British customers wishes, whims and the mechanism of decision making. It became possible after using Management Information System (MIS). Tesco set close cooperation with University College London. The scientists offered new methods of gathering, checking, collating, review, storage, access, retrieval and update of statistics information of retail sells. Fed every second by Tesco's 12 million Clubcard holders, the Crucible database could in theory generate about 12 billion pieces of data a year if each cardholder bought just 20 items a week. This information is analyzed very attentively. MIS helps managers to understand what goods are sold better together, to place them accordingly on the counters in supermarkets. Experts, who carry out such analysis for Tesco, insist that the company has one of the biggest customer databases in the world. At first, hypermarket provides constant (season, holiday, single) discounts for that goods and stuffs, which customer buys oftener then others. At the end of a quarter each Clubcard holder gets voucher, equivalent to sum total, he spent in Tesco hypermarkets. Additionally they are rewarded with coupons, which allow discounts to that goods, the customers can enjoy (according to MIS results). Surely, this generated information is based on purchase data analysis. 2. MARKETING CONCEPTS ROLE Management Information System (relevant module) defines the consumer goods basket, which can be potentially interested to a customer. During the quarter Tesco sells about 6 million letters with propositions of different discounts to loyal clients. Also Tesco MIS provides detailed sells information, which allows placing the goods on the counters according to consumers' tastes in each particular region or even in dependence of daytime. In the morning customers buy one stuffs, in the evening - another. Tesco shops in the center of London differ greatly from the little out-of-the-way ones. Other MIS module takes into account ethnic and demographic factors, fashion and even the contents of TV programs. Can you imagine customer joy and pleasure, who feels such a great attention and care from a huge hypermarket This feeling is likely to that when your relative, living far from you, one day brings you wonderful gifts, which you wished for but tell nobody about. Sir Terry Leahy, Tesco manager confirms that Tesco is a mirror, which reflects customers' tastes and wishes. Actually, hypermarket role is not so passive exactly thanks to multifunction MIS. Experts firmly consider that Tesco influence not only the manufacturing but also the "consumer-manufacturer" relationships. Retail cards system presents a unique information gathering methodology. This is

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Construction Contracts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Construction Contracts - Essay Example One very important change is that the nomination for sub-contractors has been discarded. This will mean that the whole project will be the sole responsibility of the contractor. Hence, it will not matter if certain segments of the undertaking are passed on to other outside parties or agencies. Also, there will be minimal arguments to expect in the interpretation of the contract because the new JCT2005 is written in plain simple English and the major parts are segregated from one another in sections. Actually, the vital components and characteristics of the contents are retained except that the presentation has become less complicated or complex. Furthermore, certain terminologies have to be renamed to suit the real spirit intended by the parties. If there is a mutual agreement to have an overseer for the works, the title is now called Architect/Contract Administrator instead of just an Architect. Extension of Time is now termed Adjustment to the Completion Date. In case of a decision to suspend payment, the notice of withholding can only be done by the employer or the client. It can no longer be a part of the job of the Architect/Contract Administrator. ...In case of dispute, the covenanted remedy is now litigation instead of arbitration. As a matter of course, however, the parties are still free to resort to arbitration if they opt to thresh out their differences through the more expedient and convenient alternative method of patching up things. Still, there is a provision recommending for mediation in case of controversies. In the event that one party becomes insolvent, the other has to serve the appropriate notice of termination. Electronic mailing is now allowed as a medium of service of notices and other items for correspondence. The provision for the employer's own design team is still the same in JCT2005. However, a design option for the contractor is also provided for. On insurance pre-requisites, the contractor has become obliged to put up a profession al indemnity insurance, an agreement feature not included in the 1998 version. The right of the employer to liquidated damages reduction is set forth in the adjustment of the time for completion while the terms for relevant events are made more burdensome to the contractor who is to shoulder consequential costs brought about by materials and labour shortages resultant of industrial unrests like strikes. In such cases and similar instances, the Architect/Contract Administrator is under obligation to explain any adjustment to the completion date. In order to eradicate confusions regarding notices in the payment aspect of the covenant, the contractor under JCT2005 has the right to be paid according to the sum due considering the progress of performance even if he stated another amount in his application to collect and the employer withholds a certain portion.  

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Why are UFOs still a mystery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Why are UFOs still a mystery - Essay Example There are many possible explanations as to why UFOs are still a mystery, some of which are discussed here. An unidentified flying object, UFO is â€Å"an object or light, reportedly seen in the sky, whose appearance, trajectory, and general dynamic and luminescent behavior do not readily suggest a logical, conventional explanation† (UFO). According to general belief, UFOs are spaceships, belonging to extraterrestrial life, or aliens. However, it is important to note that all unidentified objects in the sky need not necessarily belong to aliens. Many UFOs mistaken to be spaceships were actually found to be weather balloons or military airplanes. There have been many instances, however, where the appearance of a UFO could not be explained based on rational terrestrial phenomena, and it is believed that these can only be alien spacecrafts or flying saucers. Many instances of alien sightings on earth, have also been reported. For instance, a farmer and two members of the Mutual UF O Network, MUFON were reported to have seen a three-foot tall alien in Southeast US (Keen). In another event that occurred about 69 years ago over Los Angeles during the Second World War, a seemingly unidentifiable flying object was observed in the sky while the West Coast was preparing for an air raid, . Around 1,400 shells were fired at it. Yet, it managed to remain in flight â€Å"despite an intense artillery barrage that lasted 25 minutes† (Linkhorn). This incident was soon forgotten and was later revived as a â€Å"possible UFO event (Linkhorn). Describing the event and the UFO observed then, Bruce Maccabee, a UFO researcher states, â€Å"The technology goes beyond what we have† (qtd. in Linkhorn). Due to technological as well as intellectual limitations, the presence of extra terrestrial life and flying saucers will always remain a mystery. Nevertheless, the UFO sightings on earth do need further investigations to ascertain whether or not they belong to alien be ings. In spite of video and photographic proofs, apart from eye witnesses, UFOs still remain a mystery. The possible reasons as to why UFOs are still a mystery could be the absence of sound and rational evidence in favor of flying saucers. Inconsistent records, improper reporting by eyewitnesses, and governmental cover-ups may also be held responsible. From another perspective, it may also be assumed that UFOs especially flying saucers belonging to extra terrestrials do not really exist, and that they are actually fake stories perpetrated in order to hide military secrets. 1. Improper reporting and inconsistent records Improper reporting by witnesses of UFOs, hoax reports and lack of consistent records is one of the major reasons behind the prevalence of UFO mysteries. While innumerable sightings are reported worldwide, not all witnesses report a single incident with uniformity. This instigates doubt and disbelief in their existence. However, the witnesses and reporters cannot be bl amed for the lack of accurate information. Humans are bound by physical limitations. Furthermore, UFOs travel at extremely swift speeds. It is difficult to assimilate accurate details when confronted with a UFO sighting. Moreover, owing to the high velocities of these objects, they are reported to be seen at many different locations simultaneously. According to Peter Davenport, the executive director of the National UFO Reporting Center: It appears these things are capable of traveling at unimaginably high velocities. So a UFO that’s seen over Wenatchee can be over Florida or the Ivory Coast, I believe, certainly within minutes, and possibly

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Blended Family Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Blended Family - Research Paper Example The present article emphasize on the analysis of trends presenting changes in the patterns of parenting culminating into blended families. Remarriage affect the power dynamics within marriage. It witness changes in men and women in terms of marital power across their first-marriage, divorce and remarriage. It is observed that male ego and social setup cannot tolerate women’s market worth more when he compares with his worth! On the contrary domestically oriented women do undergo a feeling of loss of power. These circumstances pave the way for remarriage and formation of blended families. It surely affects the market work, marital and divorce experiences and their working atmosphere. Formation of blended family or stepfamily is a step to meet and fulfill the desires of each other as in these families one or both partners have been married before and has lost a spouse through divorce or death, and may have children from the previous marriages. Blending of two families not only encompasses two people coming together but also their children get an acceptance from the opposite partner and his/her children. Only by visualizing one cannot discriminate between the composition of first-marriage families and blended families, but when observed closely then there do occur a drastic difference in terms of marital conflicts. Blended families are structurally more complex as it comprises more family members. Children along with the adults (new parents) of blended family have to share more relations making the family tree from simple to complex. This results in amplification of the possibilities for conflict. Also the range of types of relationships also can lead to a greater likelihood of family disputes (Borrine Brown & Handal, 1991). This complexity can also affect the psychology of the child because of lack of family boundaries; this also affects the discipline of the

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Italian Renaissance Essay Example for Free

The Italian Renaissance Essay Introduction The literature of the Renaissance featured heroism, justice and power, influencing modern political, social and philosophical ideals. In contrast to the middle ages where censorship limited to themes and genres for literature, the Renaissance served as platform for public commentary and discussion. However, it should also be noted that though many of the writers of the period had greater independence than other artists of the time from the Church, many of the writers enjoyed patronage by state political powers or became part of the political machinery of these institutions. In Bondanella and Musa’s (1987) The Italian Renaissance Reader, the works of some of the most notable writers of the Renaissance movement provide a glimpse to the evolution of the rationale behind the artistic movement which while adhering to classical traditions, revived intellectual thinking and exchange. Background Though the Renaissance was a reaction to the medieval conservative views and saw the resurgence of arts, literature and philosophy, there was still significant conservatism in sciences. Thus, though many of the writers of the period can be considered to be forward-thinking, the prescription of logic and deduction as intellectual disciplines is apparent. One advocate of the methodology is Petrarch who highlighted classical sources and scholarship as the standard of reasoning and study (p. 57). This tradition or style is apparent in the works of Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince, Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron and Baldesar Castiglione’s Book of the Courier among other as well (pp. 259, 60, 197). Building from the literature and art revolution of the late 1200’s, Italian became the literary language of the period in contrast to previous preference for other European languages. It created not only a nationalistic identity to literature but also served as reinforcement for state, social and political works that Italian writer would be most noted for. Consequently, the development would also support the growth of publishing in the country, particularly Venice, which in turn will further enhance the regard for Italian Renaissance writers. However, despite these changes, religion remained a primary theme in most Italian works. Majority of the works were either reflective of the medieval themes or applications of such themes using humanism. Themes and Ideas Italian writers sought to assimilate classical traditions in their work in the belief that these intellectualized and rationalized their work. One of the most common themes and ideas in the writers featured humanism and self-awareness. The former can be illustrated by Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola’s Oration on the Dignity of Man (pp. 180-183). In this work, man is portrayed as an individual whose identity and value is his own and though he is subject to religion, society and the state, remains an individual. As such, he is considered both an actor an object of other actions through the process of living. Self-awareness in turn can be illustrated in the work of Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti (pp. 187-196, 377-381). Though they are most renowned for their contribution to visual art, both these artists’ notes indicate their belief that art as a product of man is beyond his inspiration or labor. They implied that the work or artists and in a sense all other labors of man, where to be appreciated for themselves beyond their identity as a work of an individual and in turn to understand the artist beyond the work being viewed. Boccaccio’s Decameron also proved to be inspirational to other writers of the period not only in Italy but in the rest of Europe including the works of William Shakespeare and Geoffrey Chaucer (p. 60). Furthermore, the Decameron is considered to not to represent the characteristics of the Renaissance Italy literature but actually set the pace for other writers since Boccaccio was one of the most notable students of Petrarch. In the course of his story of the ten story tellers running from the plague combined religious themes with secular discussion of ethics and morality (pp. 59-61). In all of these writings, there is greater empowerment for men to mold their destinies and the ability to make choices. Ultimately, the Italian Renaissance writers believed that salvation and redemption depend on an individual’s capacity and commitment to realize them. In such a perspective, though religion remains to be a predominant power, man is the qualifier of human experience. Moreover, there is greater recognition of man’s hand in the life of others as well as his own. In turn, this reinforced the call for greater responsibility and accountability for one’s actions. Impact and Influence One of the most important contributions of Italian Renaissance writers is the establishment of Italian as a language of literature. This would serve as a foundation for the Italian literary industry as well as the role of the Italian writers as political and social intellectual leaders in Europe. Another notable contribution of Italian Renaissance writers is their influence on other writers of the period such as Shakespeare and Chaucer as well as the development of humanistic ideals and appreciation of art. A hierarchy for living matter was also developed based on a hierarchy of intellect implying that man’s greatest ability was the capacity of reasoning. In terms of literary style and composition, characterization and plot development in Italian Renaissance literature influenced the development of experiential narrative melding religious and secular views on morality, ethics and philosophy. In studying these trends in artistic composition, techniques, subjects and styles developed by Italian Renaissance writers, one will be able to develop insights to the social, political and economic developments brought on by the Renaissance in Italy which cradled both the Renaissance and the period by which it sought to contrast itself. Like the visual arts, Renaissance writers often employed illusionism to explore real issues. In doing so, they were able to present social, moral or philosophical commentary without direct conflict with other belief systems and at the same time highlight the value of systematic and scholastic study. In doing so, it brought into popular arenas intellectual discussion reminiscent of classical scholastic traditions. However, though there was significant reference to classical traditions, Italian Renaissance writers recognized the difference between philosophy and science which persists to contemporary studies as well. Reference Bondanella, Julia Conaway and Musa, Mark (1987). The Italian Renaissance Reader. New York: Penguin Books

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Environmental Analysis Of Thomas Cook Tourism Essay

Environmental Analysis Of Thomas Cook Tourism Essay Summary This report deals with one of the leading travel group in the world which has been in operation since the past. It has been considered as the most trustworthy and reliable travel group which offers travel packages to its customers across the world. The travel group is Thomas Cook and is one of the leading travel and tourism agencies in the world. In this assignment, the organisation of Thomas Cook has been analysed taking into consideration the internal and the external environmental factors. A number of the important models such as McKinsey model along with the Pest analysis, SWOT and other models have been used to analyse the organisation. The main aim was to analysis the external and internal environment affecting the organisation. Leadership style has been discussed, and it can been seen that Thomas Cook has one of the cost effective organisational structure and follows a flexible business model so that it can be altered as and when needed. Finally the paper ends with recommendat ion and conclusion which states that the company should work according to the demand of the customers in order to stay competitive and maintain its number one position. Introduction Aim of the Report The aim of this report is to conduct an effective internal and external environmental analysis of Thomas Cook based on separate models. The analysis would help one understand the key competencies of the firm and also the areas where development is needed. Recommendations are also to be provided in due course to enhance the position. Overview of the Organisation Company Size Thomas Cook is one of the biggest companies in the field of leisure and travel and is observed to operate along a large geographical segment pertaining to 22 countries round the world. The company has emerged out to be a key market leader in the leisure and travel category. Thomas Cook, during the financial year of 2011-12 earned total sales revenue emanating to  £9.8 billion from a total customer base of 23.6 million people around the globe (Thomas Group Plc, 2012). Company Structure Thomas Cook operates based on a decentralised structure where the board of directors are responsible for delegation of tasks and duties to subsequent committees and other sub-boards. The structure operates along a top-down or vertical integration fashion in the company (Thomas Cook, 2010, p.53). Main Activities Thomas Cook Plc works along several segments to render value-added services to the customers. The first or the core product segment contains of packaged tourism services where both flights and hotel services are grouped under one bundle and rendered to the customer. The second segment consists of independent packages that help in rendering consumers a larger flexibility in choosing the travel destinations, duration of tour and other value additions. The third product segment focuses on rendering financial support to the travellers in terms of foreign exchange or money transfers and also in tour assurance services. Fourthly the group also operates via retail houses that help in distributing tour packages and offers to the consumers. Finally the group also operates on the basis of online networks where it focuses to serve consumers in European and pan-European markets effectively (Thomas Cook, 2011, p.13). Objectives of the Report As a market analyst and researcher the report to be presented would highlight the strategic potencies and drawbacks of Thomas Cook operating around the world in the travel and leisure segment. The report presented would eventually help the company management potentially address the drawbacks highlighted to develop its performance potential in the future. Analysis of the Organisation Internal Environmental Analysis Employee Engagement Analysis in Thomas Cook The analysis of employee engagement in organisations reflects the manner in which the people involved relate their activities and conduct to the inherited cultures and values of the concern. Thus an employee engaged is taken to be highly conscious of the organisational values and cultures and thereby coordinates with other colleagues to effectively achieve organisational goals and objectives. The level of employee engagement enhances with the level of relatedness the employer has with the employee groups (Vazirani, 2005, p.3). Herein, the module of employee engagement is used to analyse the level of loyalty and reliability of the employees in Thomas Cook. The management of Thomas Cook endeavours to effectively interrelate with the employees involved in different levels to share with them potential information pertaining to changes in organisational strategy and policies. Effective interrelation and communication is carried out by the management both along the web and physical sphere in terms of online chat and electronic mails and circulation of internal magazines respectively. Moreover the employees are also invited to participate in workshops and training programs that in turn enhance their potential to perform in their specific task areas. Further the management body of Thomas Cook from time to time conducts effective surveys to understand the level of interrelatedness of the employees, both new and old to the organisational values and business directives. Survey carried out would clearly hint on the satisfaction and commitment level of the internal people in Thomas Cook. Satisfaction level of the internal people duly enhanced help s Thomas Cook in addressing the changing needs of the consumers and also in effectively reducing the level of staff turnovers in the organisation. Henceforth, employee engagement activities in the company motivate the people to work more productively and thereby augment the revenue and productivity paradigm of the concern (Thomas Cook Group plc, 2011; Thomas Cook Group plc-a, 2011). Analysis of Thomas Cook based on McKinseys 7S Model The Model In the McKinseys 7S Model firstly, the management works on the basis of set strategies incorporating the views of many to help arrive at a specific action plan to accomplish end goals. Secondly, the management works on a definite structure to integrate the people working in different levels more effectively to meet end objectives. Thirdly, the organisation works based on a set of policies and procedures in achieving targets set. Fourthly, the concern uses internal people as a key resource in meeting the tasks set. Fifthly, different managers reflect different types of styles in meeting the same objectives. Sixthly, the management needs to share the objectives and policies of the concern with the employees to coordinate the actions taken. Seventhly, the skills of the people need to be enhanced in meeting end objectives effectively and successfully (Bhattacharya, 2011, p.333-334). McKinseys 7S Framework is reflected in the following diagram. Figure 1 (Bhattacharya, 2011, p.334) The attributes of the model would be used to analyse the internal environment of Thomas Cook for they help in setting a paradigm through which the organisational manager gains the potential in drawing the attention of the employees in meeting end objectives. Structure The organisational structure of Thomas Cook is found to be vertically integrated with a top-down management structure. Thus decisions are generally taken by the board of directors and higher management body of the concern and percolated downwards to different organisational levels. However in recent times, Thomas Cook is observed to take resort of a global outsourcing strategy to transfer the finance and accounting services in the hands of outsourced teams to help in cost reduction and organisational productivity (Banham, 2005). Systems Thomas Cook works based on an integrated business model incorporating the designing of both individual and packaged tours and also assisting the consumers in terms of financing and insuring their tour activities. Similarly, the company works in gaining an enhanced consumer base through carrying out its operations via retail marts and also through the online base. Thomas Cook trains its staffs to render effective customer services acting on such planes (Thomas Cook, 2011, p.13). Style The management style at Thomas Cook firstly works in encouraging the growth of organisational diversity in terms of employing people pertaining to different ethnic backgrounds, sex and age differences. Secondly, the management style in the concern promotes growth and promotion based on merits and performance parameters and thereby restricts the practice of discrimination in the workplace (Thomas Cook, n.d.). Staff The organisational management works in effectively recruiting a talented and knowledgeable workforce in the concern. Having recruited a talented and multi-skilled workforce the management works in motivating the people and effectively integrating training them to fulfil the needs of the concern (Thomas Cook Group plc-b, 2011). Skills The skills of the internal people are enhanced by Thomas Cook through the incorporation of effective training and performance management programs. Feedback is generated to the employees based on performance appraisal systems to help them address the drawbacks. In 2011, the company invested around à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤9.9 million pertaining to the training segment (Thomas Cook Group plc-c, 2011). Strategy The core business strategy of Thomas Cook is to train its employee base to render value-additions to the service parameters pertaining to the category of independent travel. Further, the management also desires to enhance the financing and business development parameters of the travel related services framework to augment the customer satisfaction experience (Thomas Cook Group plc, 2012). Shared Values The higher management body of Thomas Cook works on the basis of transmitting potential information pertaining to business and strategic value to the employees pertaining to different levels. Through the above function the company management desires to work as a single unit in helping to achieve end goals effectively (Thomas Cook Group plc-d, 2011). Leadership Style of Thomas Cook Adair (2011) states that leadership style pertaining to an organisation gains effect such that where different individuals and groups are employed to help in achieving a desired task. Herein, the manager is required to divide the entire task among groups and individuals and thereby to monitor and evaluate their performance levels in helping to meet the objectives taken (Adlair, 2011, p.92-93). The same can be represented through the following illustration. Figure 2 (Adair, 2011, p.92) Task Individual Team The leadership style of Thomas Cook reflected that it works on a task based model where decisions taken by higher management are percolated through the management hierarchy along different levels. Task Individual Team Ideal leadership style of Thomas Cook would be where the task is uniformly matched with team and individual pursuits. However, the same is difficult to implement for it means a complete restructuring of the organisational structure. Task Individual Team Thus the ideal style would be to delineate and percolate the entire organisational task along different layers while at the same time encouraging the development of individuals and teams by incorporating them in decision making functions. Organisational Structure of Thomas Cook The organisation structure of Thomas Cook is reflected in Figure A in the Appendix section. Headed by the Board of Directors the company is run by different committee bodies looking after finance, health and safety, auditing and disclosure functions and similar other departments. These committee bodies report to the body of Directors. Similarly the different segments and functions of the company are governed by different boards which are linked therewith other country heads serving different markets (Thomas Group Plc-a, 2012). Human Resource Systems in Thomas Cook Induction The induction program of Thomas Cook helps in introducing the people to the procedures and policies of the company. It also helps in providing guidance to the students regarding aspects of value and culture of the company. Moreover, a buddy is rendered with the apprentices who introduce the aspirant to the task to be performed at different levels along with the values of the company. Effective survey is conducted based on the apprenticeship program where feedback is gained from them to be used for further developments in the induction training rendered. Again, the apprentices are also rendered specific electronic learning modules to enhance the knowledge of the employees in the light of modifications and developments (People 1st, 2011). Appraisal The company conducts effective performance appraisal programs of the people pertaining to different levels in the organisation. Performance reviews of the people in the concern are conducted on an annual basis and feedbacks are generated to the people on that behalf. Development of the people is done through involving them in training programs where the skills sets are honed to meet drawbacks (Thomas Cook Plc, 2010). Communication Internal communication is practiced in Thomas Cook through the holding of meetings by the board of directors of the concern every year on timely schedules. In addition to the scheduled meetings the directors are also responsible for conducting of other additional and supplementary meetings as and when needed by the company. It is observed that on a general note the board of directors holds around 9 scheduled and 10 other additional meetings in the company (Thomas Cook, 2011, p.45). Incentive A host of financial and other incentives and amenities are rendered to the individuals by the organisation so as to effectively retain a productive and highly skilled workforce. The range of benefits rendered range from holiday packages, to shopping discounts and also other insurance and other leave related benefits. Moreover the workplace is made advanced in terms rendering flexible working hours to help the people work more productively. Areas of Development in Thomas Cook Structural Paradigm Pertaining to the structural paradigm the introduction of decentralisation in the organisational ambit has required the company to incorporate information technology infrastructure in the designing of data centres in different regions (Chillingworth, 2010). Leadership Style Paradigm The managers of Thomas Cook are required to adapt to changing situations through training programs rendered based on change leadership models. Similarly, the management skills are honed through incorporation of tenets pertaining to emotional intelligence and qualities to manage stress in the workplace (People 1st, 2008, p.3). Systems Paradigm Pertaining to operation systems and procedures the company is focusing to enhance its relationship with the consumers through augmenting their safety paradigm and suppliers like hotels and air services on an enhanced scale. Moreover the company is also working for promoting a safer and healthier environment through evaluation of carbon footprint (Thomas Group Plc, 2009). Plan of Development in Thomas Cook Kotters Eight Step Model The analysis of the plan of development in Thomas Cook is conducted based on the Eight Step Model presented by John P. Kotter of Harvard. The first three steps focus on analysing external changes, modifying the vision and thereby aligning teams to incorporate the change process. The subsequent three steps focus on implementing the change process through effective communication, empowerment of individuals and motivating people through short-term wins. Finally, the seventh and eight steps focus on sustaining the change rendered and enhancing the impacts of the change through modifications (Kotter, 2006, p.4). The same can be shown in the following illustration. Figure 3: Kotters Eight Step Change Process (Kotter, 2006, p.4) Change Process in Thomas Cook Firstly, the company management created the urgency in gaining profits from the market. Secondly, a team was created through replacements and promotions rendered in the executive body to incorporate the change. Thirdly, a new vision was created focusing on reducing costs, redesigning its organisation structure and enhancing its existing brand image (Linder, 2004, p.114). Fourthly, the management endeavoured to share the vision gained with the employees involved at different levels. Fifthly, employees were empowered to take individual decisions while rendering services to the consumers. Sixthly, a reward system was brought out to effectively motivate the employees to enhance the service quality (Srinivasan, 2009, p.280). Seventhly, the company focuses on gaining hold of talented and effective people that would help the concern achieve its set goals. Communication along the lines is enhanced through holding of training and interactions on a two-way level. Finally, new leadership policies and procedures are brought about by the company management to motivate the people to work in a productive fashion (Thomas Cook, 2010, p.40). External Environmental Analysis No organisation tends to exists in vacuum as each of the organisations is affected by the external environment. The external environment refers to the context in which organisation promotes, provides and also distributes its services. In maximum number of cases, the organisation doesn`t have control or has limited control over the environmental factors. According to Rubrigt and MacDonald (1981), if any of the organisation faces weakness it would become the tendency of the organisation to overlook the opportunity or the obstacles in the market place, also the external environment (Winston, 1985, p. 45). Process of Environment Monitoring in Thomas Cook With a wide range and scale of environmental impacts across the business of Thomas Cook, the operating companies tend to coordinate the performance of the environment locally under the banner of Group Environmental Policy. Thomas Cook is committed in reducing the impact of the environment by way of protecting the environment and the resources and the business usually depends on safeguarding the wildlife, biodiversity and also animal welfare. Market research: In order to monitor the upcoming challenges and trends of the consumer Thomas cook can conduct market research based on the needs of the customers. As the disposable income rise, there arise a shift in the mindset and thus it is required to introduce and act accordingly the customers expectation. Thus doing a proper market research would help the travel agency to stay ahead of its competitors. The company can make a page and share it in social networking sites to get feedbacks about the new schemes and can alter accordingly. Demographic: Thomas Cook is a well known and the oldest travel agency and thus the customers are attracted towards it because of the reliability and experience. Thomas cook can expand its stores where most number of customers visit to attract even more customers. Benchmarking: Thomas Cook has benchmarked the employee satisfaction. The company believe that employee who is engaged tends to perform better which leads to satisfied and loyal customers. Thomas Cook has compared each of the business segments through an employee survey and the rate of response was 64% in the year 2009. As per the survey in 2009 the engagement index was 3.74 as compared to the benchmark index of 3.67 (Thomas Cook Group Plc, 2009). Trade publication: Thomas Cook pocket guides covers about 170 destinations and at the same time compact and practical guide for the sun seekers and also for the city breakers. Other guides available for the travellers include driving guides, travellers guide and others. Recently Thomas cook has launched Canadian website which is a conjunction with rebranding of all the retail locations of Thomas Cook across Canada (Travel Trade, 2012). Scenario Planning: Thomas cook has acquired other travel agents in order to stay competitive in the travel agency sectors. PEST Analysis of Thomas Cook PEST Analysis is mainly used to scan the environment. PEST refers to political, economical, social and technological factors (Henry, 2008, p. 41). Thus Pest is used to analyses and scans the general environment surrounding Thomas cook. It is through PEST that the company will be able to detect as well as monitor the weak signals in order to recognise the fractures which shape the environment. Political Factors The UK travel and tourism industry has faced immense pressure from the government as it has introduced tourism tax and has said to affect all the travel and tourism business including Thomas Cook. The travel agents had opposed to the proposal of bed tax which the government had levied  £1 per head per night from the visitors staying in the local hotels. The proposed bed tax is said to increase the domestic price and keep the foreign visitors from holidaying in UK (The Guardian, 2012). The potential tax of about 5% to 10% would make England the proposed bed tax is said to increase the domestic price and keep the foreign visitors from holidaying in UK (The Guardian, 2012). It is one of the highest taxed holiday destinations in whole of Europe (BHA, 2012). Thus with the rise in tax, business like the local shops, the restaurants and the travel agencies are said to be affected. Economic Factors During the past few years the tourism sector have faced hard times due to challenging economic times and have largely impacted the global travel market but however there are signs of recovery within the consumers. The travel and the leisure sector were impacted mainly due to the consumers disposable income, unemployment rate, fluctuation in the rate of currency and the oil price. All these drives have hugely impacted the travel and leisure industry. The GDP declined by 6% in the year 2009, the rate of unemployment has increased to about 2%, the price of oil continued to be highly volatile. In addition to the above factor, there are other factors which have impacted the global travel market. Global terrorism has impacted the confidence of the consumers from travelling along with the swine flu in Mexico which had similarly affected the travel planes along with an increased taxation the economic conditions seems to get worst. Therefore due to these challenging economic conditions, the t ravel market over the past few years has significantly declined in the travel market (Thomas Cook Group Plc, 2009). Social Factors The economy of UK is one of the strongest economy in Europe where the disposable income of the consumers are at a rise and thus the expenditure made on leisure is growing at about 6% and thus has higher level of expectation from the travel and tourism sectors. Most of the people will at least go for one holiday to abroad, thus increasing the demand of the travel and tourism industry. In addition one of the important markets in travel and tourism is the grey market which mainly comprises of older people who are healthy and fit and as such has plenty of time along with funds to spend on travelling (Pearson School and College, n.d, p. 11). Technological Factors Technological factors refer to the use of internet which has allowed the people the opportunity to become much more independent and make plans according to their desire. Thomas Cook aims to be among the top online service provider and it can be done through modified and advanced technologies. Analysis of the Competitive Environment of Thomas Cook The competitive environment is analysed in order to describe the nature of the following attributes. As the environment keeps on changing each of the listed attributes becomes more or less attractive in order to achieve profitable growth rate. Thus the competitive environment of Thomas Cook has been analysed. Figure 4: Attributes in the Competitive Environment (Source: Bigler Norris, 2004, p. 81) Diversity The Thomas Cook Group is committed to provide a workplace which is free from discrimination and that supports diversity. Not only is it beneficial to the employee but also to the company in having a diversified workforce. The organisation provides employee training and monitors the diversity among its employees. Diversity is key strength of Thomas Cook and is an essential part of the business. The company operates in bout 22 countries and thus employs people from different backgrounds and cultures. A diverse workforce tends to create a dynamic as well as innovative culture of the company (Thomas Cook Group Plc-a, 2011). (Refer Appendix A) Rivalry Rivalry is high among the leisure industry as with the rise in the disposable income people are spending more amount of money on travelling which has led to the development of many tourism and travel agencies. As a result Thomas Cook also faces rivalry from other travel agencies such as American Express Company, Carlson Wagonlit Travel and Holiday break plc (Hoovers, 2012). Buyers The buyers are not given many options to choose from, by the company and thus they need to finalise from the given set of options and thus it can be said that the degree of power of the buyers are low. Hostility The degree of hostility is low to moderate in case of tourism industry. The travel and tourism agencies face from fierce competition but they do not declare an open war with respect to price. The marketing strategy adopted by the Thomas Cook and its competitors are almost the same to attract the customers. The companies compete with each other in all the aspects but do not declare open price wars with the competitors. Cost of Entry The cost of entry into the travel and tourism industry is relatively moderate to high. The capital requirement is usually high and thus creates a high rate of barrier for the new entry in the tourism sectors. Also the market share is occupied by the top leaders in the market and therefore it becomes hard for the new company to form a brand image and acquire a decent market share to compete with the already established firms. Brand recognition also acts as a barrier to the new entrant. Fragmentation The degree of fragmentation is high among the travel and tourism industry. Thomas Cook remains highly fragmented as it had the opportunity to achieve the top three market position. Thomas Cook has targeted gross booking with value of about  £3.5bn (Thomas Cook Group Plc-b, 2010). Turbulence The travel and tourism industry suffers from unpredicted variance and thus the turbulence is also high. With economic downturn and other related factors the tourism industry tends to gets affected to a very large extent and it increases the rate of turbulence. SWOT Analysis of Thomas Cook SWOT analysis is mainly used by organisation as strategic planning and usually refers to the identification of the strength, weakness along with the opportunities and threats of the organisations. SWOT is conducted to know about the internal as well as the external environment of the company and act accordingly. SWOT Analysis of Thomas Cook will enable the travel group to know its strength and overcomes its weakness and through opportunity overcome the threats. Strength Thomas cook has a strong brand name and image and is one of the leading leisure travel agencies in the world. It offers various package tours and other holiday components and other services. The group has recorded revenue of about  £9, 808.9million during the financial year 2011 The company has managed to show an increase of about 10.3% from the previous financial year 2010 (Research and Markets, 2012). The group continues to build upon the strengths which the company has created over the years which include strong financial position, trusted brand portfolio and the ability of the company, with its flexible model, to manage the business so that the group is able to meet the needs of the customers in the future (Thomas Cook Group Plc-c, 2009). Weakness One major weakness lies is that with a economic slowdown the travel agencies have experienced a huge break down in the number of consumers travelling from one place to another. This has impacted Thomas Cook Group. Opportunity With a rise in the disposable income of the consumers a huge opportunity lies with Thomas Cook to expand itself into various other countries and help the consumer experience the pleasure of travelling. Technology being an upper hand for the travel agencies, the online market is said to flourish which makes it easier for the consumers to select from various options made available from the travel agencies. Threat Threat lies from the other competitors which has been doing equally well in the travel and tourism sectors. With many travel and tourism agency, the customers gets a wide variety to choose from the best options and this tends to increase the competition among the travel and tourism industry. Also shift in the consumer behaviour also poses a threat for Thomas Cook. Major Challenges of Thomas Cook Thomas Cook has been facing some tough challenges which include financial consolidation as well as restricting. The CEO of the company, Manny Fontenla-Novoa resigned which took the company as a surprise. Another set of challenges is the growth of the company through acquisition. Growth by way of acquisition was one of the core strategies together with strict cost in order to improve the profit margins. In recent years Cook had sealed its market entry in Russia by a majority of stake in tour business operator. But at the same time, both internal as well as external problems have increased in Thomas Cook and it becomes a huge challenge for the company to undergo its operation when the environment is not healthy. The demand has slowed because of the weak economy of UK and also its strong focus on cost cutting, UK invested little in IT and product which left Thomas Cook positioned poorly in the market (FVW, 2011). The oldest travel agency has also seen a drop in summer holidays by about 10% which is one of the core businesses of Thomas Cook of sending the families off to destinations like Balearics and Canaries. The shares of Thomas Cook have also slumped to about 86% but still many of the problems of the company tend to persists (Moulds, 2012). Conclusions Thomas Cook is one of the most successful travel agency which meets the travel need of the customers. Thomas Cook is the leading travel groups with flexible business model and also focused strategy and has a team of more than 31000 people who are equally committed towards the vision of the company. It can be said that the company has been performing well in the financial year and plans to do well in the near future but with changing market environment along with the demands and needs of the customers Thomas Cook needs to adapt to new technologies and serve or provide its customers with the wants and requirements. Thomas Cook has been facing few challenges as mentioned and it should take the necessary steps to avoid problems which could hamper the

Womens Education And Empowerment In India Sociology Essay

Womens Education And Empowerment In India Sociology Essay Women constitute almost half of the population in the world. But the prevailing masculine ideology made them suffer a lot as they were denied equal opportunities in different parts of the world. The rise of feminist ideas have, however, led to the tremendous improvement of womens condition through out the world in recent times. India being a developing nation and having huge tussles among its political, religious and administrative organs resulting into blocked development and the worst effect of that we can witness into women condition .They do not have proper chance to learn and grow and access to education has been one of the most pressing demands of womens rights . Women education in India has also been a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. History of Women Education in India(4,6): Although in the Vedic period women had access to education in India but as the time grew they lost this right to avail education and academic exposure. However, in the British period there was revival of interest in womens education in India due to Britishers strong influence to the core Indian education system. During this period, various socio religious movements led by eminent persons like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar emphasized on womens education in India. Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Periyar and Baba Saheb Ambedkar were leaders of the lower castes in India who took various initiatives to make education available to the women of India. They also ensured about their participation in the social gatherings and events by introducing them into polity and administration at all levels. However womens education got a fillip after the country got independence in 1947 and the government has taken various measures to provide education to all Indian women. As a result womens literacy rate has grown over the three decades and the growth of female literacy has in fact been higher than that of male literacy rate. While in 1971 only 22% of Indian women were literate, by the end of 2001 54.16% female were literate. The growth of female literacy rate is 14.87% as compared to 11.72 % of that of male literacy rate and is on growing path. Government has taken a step forward by making education compulsory and free to girl child till the age of fourteen. They are getting reservations in public sector exams and private sectors like Banks, Transport Services, Hospitality and Tourism, Healthcare etc. (4. Freedom Struggle By- Bipin Chandra Pal) Table The Literacy Rate in India 1901-2011 Percentage  Ã‚   of  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Literates  Ã‚  Ã‚   to  Ã‚   total  Ã‚  Ã‚   population Year  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Persons  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Males  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Females 1901  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   5.3  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   9.8  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   0.7 1911  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   5.9  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   10.6  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1.1 1921  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   7.2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   12.2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1.8 1931  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   9.5  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   15.6  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2.9 1941  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   16.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   24.9  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   7.3 1951  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   16.7  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  24.9  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   7.3 1961  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   24.0  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   34.4  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   13.0 1971  Ã‚  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   29.5  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   39.5  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  18.7 1981  Ã‚           Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   36.2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   46.9  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   24.8 1991  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   52.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   63.9  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   39.2 2001  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   65.38   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  76.0  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   54.0 2011(Recent data) 74.04 82.14 65.46 The above table shows that there is an improvement in women literacy in India during the years. But when we compare it with male literacy it becomes a concern area. (9. Censusindia.gov.in) Importance of Women Education in India(7): Women education in India plays a very important role in the overall development of the country. It not only helps in the development of half of the human resources, but in improving the quality of life at home and outside. Educated women not only tend to promote education of their girl children, but also can provide better guidance to all their children. Moreover educated women can also help in the reduction of infant mortality rate and growth of the nation. Education is a potent tool in the emancipation and empowerment of women. Its true that greatest single factor which can incredibly improve the status of women in any society is education. It is indispensable that education enables women not only to gain more knowledge about the world outside of her shell and home but helps her to get status, positive self esteem, and self confidence. It imparts necessary courage and inner strength to face challenges in life. Apparently it also facilitates them to procure a job and supplement the income of family and achieve social status. Education especially of women has a major impact on health and nutrition as an instrument of developing a sustainable strategy for population control. Moreover educated women can play an equally important role as men in nation building. Thus there is no denying fact that education empowers women. For example the different organs of the United Nations and experts on womens liberation argue for womens education as the basic step to attain equality with men. ( 7. Saraswathi Mishra, Status of Indian Women, Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi, 2002) Obstacles : As we have discussed earlier to improve women education and condition in India various initiatives and corrective measures have been done but still a lot is expected to be accomplished. THE ROOT CAUSES FOR LOW LITERACY AMONG WOMEN IN INDIA Women education is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. No single factor or cause can be held responsible for very low literacy rate of women in India. Subsequently it is associated with combination of many factors including social, cultural, economic, educational, demographic, political and administrative and so on. The following are the some of the important factors which could be attributed for the present poor state of affairs of womenfolk in education. The Lower Enrolment: The lower enrolment of girls in schools is one of the foundational factors which stand as stumbling block for women empowerment in India. Reliable sources indicate that more than 50 % of the Non-Starters (those who have never been to school) are girls.   According to the latest statistics, two out of every ten girls in the age group of 6-11 are still not enrolled in schools. (1) Higher drop-out rate among girls from schools: The incidence and prevalence of drop -outs among girls especially in rural, tribal and slums areas seem to be quite high. According to available sources, occurrence of drop-out and stagnation amongst girls is nearly twice that of boys all over India. (1) Girl Child as Second Mother: In many families girl children play the role of second mother by shouldering the responsibilities of household work such as looking after the sibling, fetching water, collecting firewood, bringing fodder for cattle, cleaning and cooking etc.   In rural India especially in poor families this traditional sex role makes girl child handicapped and conditioned by the attitude of mother and the family and discourages girl child to go school as it becomes secondary and unimportant. Hence girl child is getting deprived of her basic and fundamental right of education and freedom. (8) Bonded Labor System: This social evil is a quite discouraging phenomena which stand as barrier for girls education in rural areas for the underprivileged families of washer men and agricultural labor , scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. Caste System as a Barrier : Children belonging to low caste families are forced to learn skills and work ways and not encouraged to go to school due to various factors. Strict instruction /threat from high caste communities for their selfish motives of keeping them as domestic servants and child laborers in the farms or factory. We can witness this through the stories of various factories and farm houses in industrial cities of India. Media is also playing a crucial role here in promoting as well as resisting these mishaps. (8) Bane of Dowry: Dowry system and other social practices act as main causes of the neglect of the girl child and discrimination against girl child including the deprivation of right of education. In many families especially poor and down-trodden think that if their daughters are educated more, they have to accumulate more assets and properties to provide as dowry in large proportion at the time of marriage, so prefer rather to either stop their children with average education and so on but never higher education. This prevails more in underprivileged families and communities. (1) Child Labour Practice: A large segment of child population in India is engaged in child labour practices. According to UN sources   India is the most child labour populous nation in the globe with more than 50 million child labourers indulged in beedi works , carpet making , bricks,   mining , quarrying ,glass, bangles, match and fireworks, gem polishing ,handloom works. zari,   embroidery ,coir industry, domestic works, construction etc. In most of these industries girl children are preferred for high productivity and low cost. (8) Poor School Environment for girls: In general the school environment for girls in India is not really interesting and encouraging. The subjects taught in schools are also not related to the environment of girl children. The methods of teaching are mostly out dated, rigid and uninteresting. There are still hundreds of schools with poor basic amenities such as drinking water, latrine and toilet facilities, improper building, and inadequate number of teachers especially female teachers preferable for any parents for safety of their girl children from different types of exploitation and abuse. (7) Female age at marriage: There is high association of female literacy with female age at marriage.   By and large the female age at marriage of 18   ( recently 21 years ) as prescribed by various legislations not at all followed in India .It is very much ignored and neglected by the families of parents with low literacy and illiteracy background. This obnoxious practice discourages female children to continue their schooling and higher education as they enter into family life at the early age which is not advisable from the physical and mental health point of view and also of social development. (7) Inferiority, subservience and domesticity : The female child in Indian culture especially in rural, tribal and poor families is expected to develop the qualities of inferiority; subservience and domesticity which place sever limitations on her education and development. They are considered to be lesser important for getting knowledge of outside world and exposure to education and liberty. (6) Poverty as a Barrier: In many poverty stricken families, children especially girls are considered as economic  Ã‚   assets as they bring income for livelihood as well to save from economic crises due to death or incapacity of parents (sick/ handicapped/aged). Ineffective Law Enforcing Machinery: Indian constitution and various legislations pertaining to education to children assure free and compulsory education all children of this nation but unfortunately the enforcement machinery fail to discharge its duties and responsibilities to the satisfaction of the public interest and welfare of women. Due to this wrong implementation of right policies also women of our country is getting severely affected. (5) Demographic Factors: The high population growth rate, rapid urbanisation, migration etc also attribute immensely for the poor literacy level of women and girls in India. In these frequent transition girl Childs and women are getting neglected, uncared and unheard. (5) Poor Political Will and Conviction: Government officials, policy makers, politicians etc of our country have neither political will nor conviction for the empowerment of women in general. The only think about their personal benefits and money making ignoring the welfare of the community for whom and by whom they have reached to that position. It is a very sad and disappointing aspect of Indias democracy. (5) Gender discrimination: It still persists in India .Male are still dominating and commanding the social structure of the nation and lot more needs to be done to improve womens participation in this regard e.g. womens education. The gap in the male-female literacy rate is just a simple indicator. While the male literary rate is more than 75% according to the 2001 census, the female literacy rate is just 54.16%.Prevailing prejudices, low enrollment of girl child in the schools, engagements of girl children in domestic works and high drop out rate are major obstacles in the path of making all Indian women educated. (6) Poor Academia: Another reason for poor quality of women education here is the poor quality of teachers in government schools .Government schools are unable to attract good quality teachers due to inadequate teaching facilities and low salaries. The government currently spends only 3% of its GDP on education which is inadequate and insufficient. To improve the quality of education, the government needs to spend more money from its coffers on education. (4) Steps to improve their Participation : A A significant development in recent years has been the mushrooming of community-based organizations and initiatives at the local level for women. Reports indicates that self-help programs, often in the form of savings and credit or micro credit schemes, have succeeded in changing the lives of poor women, enhancing incomes and generating positive externalities such as increased self-esteem. Micro credit is about much more than access to money. It is about women gaining control over the means to make a living. It is about women lifting themselves out of poverty and vulnerability. I is about women achieving economic and political empowerment within their homes, their villages, their countries. (5) In this whole paper we have discussed about women condition in India in terms of access to education, opportunity to learn and grow and problems in achieving the same and at last some of the measures to rectify the errors and making things happen. B-One more initiative taken by the government is the voucher system. Under the voucher system, parents are allowed to choose a school for their children and they get full or partial reimbursement for the expenses from the government. But however, the voucher system has also a draw back because it will further aggravate the problem of poor quality of education in government schools. Such a system will shift resources from government schools to private schools. This will worsen the situation of government schools which are already under-funded. Moreover, if the same amount given as vouchers can be used to build infrastructure in schools then the government can realize economies of scale. (6) C -The government of India has also felt the need to put in place an appropriate institutional mechanism to look after the Education Rights of Women and thus instituted the formulation of All India Womens Conference, National Womens Commission and State Womens Commission. At the same time government has approved special grants and allowances to NGOs working for the cause of women upliftment and social mobility. Self Help Groups have also been constituted at Panchayat level to provide a platform for the rural women to discuss issues such as family planning, child marriage, widow remarriage, Sati, domestic violence. Mother Teresas Women University has greatly helped in the cause of women empowerment who received Noble Peace Prize for her genuine social work. (6) D India is getting a great help from World Bank for the betterment of women education and their empowerment in the country .It has approved funding for Andhra Pradesh Rural Poverty Reduction Programme (APRPRP) thus garnering international support for the upliftment of women. Womens reservation Bill in the Lok Sabha has gained momentum with Govt. of India promising the reservation of one-third seats in Parliament for the women. (8) E One of the recommendations of National Policy on Education (1986) by the Government of India is to promote empowerment of women through the agency of education and it is considered to be a land mark in the approach to womens education of illiterate. The National Literacy Mission is another positive step towards eradication of illiteracy in the age group of 15-35 years. Women education has assumed special significance in the context of Indias planned development, as it is incorporated in every Five-year plans as the major programme for the development of women. Universalization of elementary education, enrolment and retention of girls in the schools, promotion of balwadies and crutches, raising number of schools and colleges of arts , science, and professional for girls , Politechniques, girls hostels, multipurpose institutions and adult education programmes are some of the steps being   taken by both central and state governments in India to boost-up womens education. (5) F    Since the prevailing situation of poor or less enrolment of girls in schools closes the doors for development and prosperity of future generation of women, concerted efforts must be initiated jointly by the government, parents and civil society to achieve universal enrolment for girls without any compromise. The enrolment can be made even mandatory for every girls by the government in the realm of compulsory education. (5) G -The Ministry of Education both at Centre and State level should work out strategic steps to stop firmly the ongoing high drop -outs among girls especially in rural, tribal and slums areas with the serious involvement of voluntary organisations in every locality to realize zero drop-out among girls. (7) H -The poverty stricken families can   be identified through proper research and necessary poverty alleviation   services be provided to strengthen the income   thereby to enable the families to send their children to schools and colleges without much financial difficulties I -Bonded Child labour and Child labour   practice must be abolished with strict administrative measures and the relieved children form bondage   should be integratedinto schools with suitable defence social mechanism. J Appropriate steps should be taken by the educational authorities with the participation of communities in order to bring the girl children to the main stream of education and development at every level including family and community. K -The female child in every Indian family irrespective of socio-economic status should be moulded to overcome the challenges of inferiority; subservience and domesticity which place sever limitations on her education and development. Every family irrespective its socio-cultural and economic background can take it a challenge to bring up their girl children as dignified human being with empowerment in physical , mental, economic and social dimensions of life. (7) L The Midday meal scheme and other educational supportive services like free text books,   Note books , Fee uniforms , Free Bicycles, Free bus , scholarships Free bus pass and so on   as done in the state of Tamil Nadu can be provided in all states and union territories to lift up the literacy level among girls. (6) M As social evils like dowry, child marriage , caste system and other practices deprive rights of education for children belonging to poor and underprivileged families and communities, they should eliminated through well-designed packages of mass awareness programmes and social welfare measures with full support of   public, political parties, NGOs and government agencies. (7) N The electronic and print media can play significant role in building a good and positive image about girls and women in general in the society by giving no focus for such advertisements and news fetching commercial gain at the cost of depicting women as an object. This would help in changing the society s attitudes towards girls and their roles to treat every girl or woman as human being with self respect and dignity. (7) O Government, voluntary sector and philanthropic organisations and individuals should come forward to provide free education for poor girls and provide free   hostel facilities   for girls studying in schools and colleges in every state of India. This will certainly encourage children of poor families to pursue good and higher education without much impediments. (6) P The schools of social work, departments of women studies, Women Universities and other educational institutions in hand with   NGOs   and social service organisations such as Rotary Clubs , Lions Clubs , women lib organisations associations can work together to improve the educational status of the womenfolk in this country on mutual respect and understanding. (7) Q The parents of children belonging to poor, underprivileged families   must be specially educated with proper social formula to help them   to understand the significance of education   for their girl children as foundation for empowerment. (1) R Government, NGOs and public should work hand in hand to implement the minimum age at marriage (21and above) Awareness should be created to institutionalise it as a traditional practice cut acrossing castes, religions, community etc. (5) S Government officials, policy makers, political parties and others should have adequate political will and conviction to empower women in India without double standard mind T The law enforcing machinery should be made really effective with efficient monitoring vigilant system to implement the constitutional and legislative provisions and administrative measures to assure free and compulsory education for all children of this nation without any gender discrimination. (7) Its true that there is great deal of requirement to uplift women education in India at the grass root level because majority of the female population live in the rural areas .They do not avail the basic things in their life and to get education is still a distant dream for them. However Indian government is coming up with various scheme in their five year plan to make the situation healthy and encouraging for these women. In 1990s, grants from foreign donor agencies enabled the formation of new women-oriented NGOs(3). Self-help groups and NGOs such as Self Employed Womens Association (SEWA) have played a major role in womens rights in India. Many women have emerged as leaders of local movements. For example, Medha Patkar of the Narmada Bachao Andolan. Companies like NIIT Ltd. (2) has come up with the project called Affirmative Action where they are taking girls from the down trodden areas and training them about English language, basic computer knowledge and after that helping them to get jobs in Retail, BPO ,Hospitality sectors. In this way the are educating them and by providing jobs women are getting empowered in taking decision, participating in family income and by helping their kids to make the future bright and opportunity oriented. (2 , 3) There is no doubt about the fact that development of women has always been the central focus of planning since Independence. Empowerment is a major step in this direction but it has to be seen in a relational context. A clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles to the path of womens emancipation both from the government and women themselves. Efforts should be directed towards all round development of each and every section of Indian women by giving them their due share. The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia. From equal status with men in ancient times through the bad phases of the medieval period, to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, the history of women in India has been on better track. In modern India, women have acquired high offices in India including that of the President, Prime minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Leader of Opposition, etc. The current President of India is a woman. (5) A review of governments various programmes for women empowerment such as Swashakti, Swayamsidha, Streeshakti, Balika samrudhi yojana and another two thousand projects reveal that little has been done or achieved through these programmes. The discrepancy in the ideology and practice of the empowerment policy of women in India constitutes its continued social, economic and social backwardness. Women make up 52% of our countrys population. Hence there can be no progress unless their needs and interests are fully met. Empowerment would not hold any meaning unless they are made strong, alert and aware of their equal status in the society. Policies should be framed to bring them into the mainstream of society. It is important to educate the women. The need of the hour is to improve female literacy as education holds the key to development. (2 , 3) There is no doubt about the fact that development of women has always been the central focus of planning since Independence. Empowerment is a major step in this direction but it has to be seen in a relational context. A clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles to the path of womens emancipation both from the government and women themselves. Efforts should be directed towards all round development of each and every section of Indian women by giving them their due share. I believe with the likes of Pratibha Patil, Sonia Gandhi, Indra Nooyi, Chanda Kochar etc. bagging the top jobs, it would not be long when India would be boosting of its Gender Equality Index (GEI) and Gender Development Index (GDI).Lesser will be the social stigma of women exploitation which have haunted it for many years gone by. Summary: Empowerment can be defined as the totality of the following or similar capabilities: Having decision-making power of their own Having access to information and resources for taking proper decision Having a range of options from which you can make choices (not just yes/no, either/or.) Ability to exercise assertiveness collective decision making Having positive thinking on the ability to make change Ability to learn skills for improving ones personal or group power. Ability to change others perceptions by democratic means. Involving in the growth process and changes that is never ending and self-initiated Increasing ones positive self-image and overcoming stigma Conclusion: From these discussions we can say that the most common explanation of womens empowerment is the ability to exercise full control over ones actions. The last decades have witnessed some basic changes in the status and role of women in our society. There has been shift in policy approaches from the concept of welfare in the seventies to development in the eighties and now to growth in the nineties and now trumpet of empowerment. This process has been further accelerated with some sections of women becoming increasingly self-conscious of their discrimination in several areas of family and public life. They are also in a position to mobilize themselves on issues that can affect their overall position.