Friday, May 31, 2019

William Henry Harrison Essay -- essays research papers fc

William Henry Harrison, (1773-1841), was 9th President of the United States. The oldest president up until then, he was also the first to break in in office, surviving only one month. With his known Indian fighting his was given the nickname Old Tippecanoe and Old Tip. He was the first presidential aspect to campaign actively for office. His election slogan was Tippecanoe and Tyler TooWilliam Henry Harrison was born on Feb. 9, 1773, on the James River in Charles City County, Virginia. He was the youngest of seven children, quatern girls and three boys. His parents, Benjamin and Elizabeth Bassett Harrison, were from prominent Virginia families. The Harrisons father had served in both Continental Congresses and signed the Declaration of Independence.Harrison received his early education at home. He entered Hampden-Sydney College in 1787 and later enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania to study medicine. After his father died in 1791, Harrison dropped medicine and joined the Arm y. George Washington, a friend of his father, approved this decision. There he served for seven successful years.Harrison served as a soldier in early American wars. There he fought a battle on the Great Miami River and substantial a plan which led to an American victory. In 1795, he witnessed and signed the Treaty of Greenville. Thereafter he was promoted to captain and given the command of Fort Washington, Ohio. dapple at Fort Washington he met his wife Anna Symmes....

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Police Brutality Essay -- The Growing Epidemic of Police Violence

Policing places men and women in an often dangerous and stressful role, relations with suspects at every level of criminal offenses. In such situations, an incident may arise that needs to be packt with decisively. Policing agencies have strict guidelines, categorizing forcible obsession into separate levels of severity. It is when an officer uses a more than acceptable means of coercion that this physical manipulation becomes excessive. Police brutality is arguably the most publicized framing of Police misconduct, especially in recent history. There are several points of view to be examined, including the offenders, the victims and the publics answer to the incident. It is clear that this is one of the most controversial aspects of policing, concerning the dangers that come along with the delicate balance of power and discretion allowed to a select group and amount of watching required. Any interaction between legal philosophy and the public could easily crack into a situation leading to violence. A simple traffic stop could turn violent, but the deciding factors are the officer in question and the suspect. Because there is no concrete definition to the amount of force reasonably required to deal with a suspect, it is hard to follow the growth or declinations in police brutality across the country. It seems that the most closely examined and often the most controversial cases of police brutality are those that are accompanied by tape of the incident. The most famous being the Rodney King Assault in which a black motorist, following(a) a high speed chase, was pulled from his vehicle and beaten. The following year, after the four officers in question were acquitted of charges, the Los Angeles Riots of 1992 ensued, though there ... ...y (pp. xi-xiii). New York City NYU Press. Retrieved April 14, 2009Lawrence, R. G. (2000). The government of force media and the construction of police brutality (pp. 13-15). University of California Press. Retri eved April 14, 2009Kleg, M. (1993). Hate, Prejudice, and Racism (pp. 13-15). Albany State University of New York. Retrieved April 14, 2009Street Battles at Night Editorial. (1919). New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2009Cohen, H. (1986). Exploiting Police Authority. barbarous Justice Ethics Volume5 Issue2 Dated(Summer-Fall 1986). United States. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Goldstein, H. (1975). Police Corruption A Perspective on its Nature and Control. United States. Police FoundationNewburn, Tim. (1999). Understanding and Preventing Police Corruption Lessons From the Literature. Research Development Statistics.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Review Of John Updikes Review it Was Sad :: essays research papers

Review of arse Updikes Review "It Was Sad"I chose to review John Updikes Review It Was Sad from the October 14th issueof The New Yorker. In the review, Updike examines several works concerningthe tragedy of the Titanic. He cites these works, I feel, to support his ownopinion to the highest degree the event, and the different accounts of what really happened.Updike spends some time disproving the belief that the upper class malepassengers heroically sacrificed their own seats on the lifeboats for those lessfortunate than themselves. He even points out, who he feels, are the realheroes in this catastrophe. This shows he is writing from a moral perspective,relating to these works.He definitely takes the position of the lower class of American society as thistime in history, and even brings up the topic of racism and sexism in the recallof the event. It seems that the ships crew and the lower class passengers werethe most lionhearted in the eventful two and half hours it took for the ship tototally go under. He provides quotes from the various selections, one being thestatistics of death, by class. These statistics show that, in actuality, moreof the upper class passengers survived than the lower classes (by bothpercentage, and total people).Updike also examines, in depth, the cultural effect of the sinking of theTitanic. The thought that a ship declared unsinkable going down on its firstvoyage was at the very least, shocking to the public. Who could look atinvention and progress in the same modality? Updike seems to point out that thepublic at this time is naive and quick to make idealistic judgments.He also refers to the passengers moral standpoints, describing the decisionsthey made not only during the ships final hours but also during the whole trip.To further prove his point, he gives the testimony included in one of the books,concerning a Senator who heard the screaming of the twinge passengers but

San Diego Mormon Temple and the Chartres Cathedral in France Essay

San Diego Mormon Temple and the Chartres Cathedral in France The San Diego Mormon Temple bases its architecture on gothic roots where the epitome of early gothic architecture is the Chartres Cathedral in France. The Mormon Temple is made of fair aggregate stone and stucco, very(prenominal) angular and massive, built as a Gothic revival temple. Designed by William Lewis, Jr., the architect took into consideration Mormon temples in Salt Lake City and Washington, D.C. enormously bulky at the base, the Mormon Temple rises from an enormous mound of earth, that conceals the lower floor. Built for the Mormons residing in Southern California, this temples marks the forty-fifth Mormon temple in the world. However, since its closing to the public in April 1993, only Mormons in good standing are now able to enter and use this massive structure. Situated in a suburban community of La Jolla/University City, the 59,000 square foot building is surrounded by shopping centers, residential areas and office buildings. There is no escaping the angular, white monstrositys impact on the city. The gothic/space age temple capitalizes on an elevated sites that is close to the freeway, where thousands of motorists pass it daily. The original Chartres Cathedral was designed by Fulbert and lasted until 1194, when a fire destroyed almost the entire church. The townspeople pulled together to make a large contribution to the reconstruction of the cathedral (Miller, Malcolm, Chartres Cathedral, Riverside Book Comp some(prenominal), 1980, p.5). The express Chartres Cathedral is largely the work of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. However, there are substantial remains of older monuments, notably in the crypt and on the wes... .... The rituals and ceremonies that occurred in that time, fit the design of the church. Similarly, the Mormon Temples unusual shaped rooms and structures fits the uses intended for them by the Latter Day Saints. The San Diego Temple is not by any means a duplicate of the Chartres Cathedral. It merely borrowed some aesthetic features characteristic of the Gothic style of architecture. The Chartres Cathedral can be seen as the bridge in the midst of the early to high Gothic periods back in medieval times, a classic. The Mormon Temple, however, is only a conglomeration of architectural elements designed to meet the call for of the Latter Day Saints. It cannot be put in the same class as classical Cathedral of Chartres. The two churches, while both drawing solicitude to themselves, one does it in a classical way, the other, making a spectacle of itself. href=index.html back to va11

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The History of African Americans in Film Essay -- essays research pape

Minstrel shows were developed in the 1840s and reached its peak after the Civil War. They managed to remain popular into the early 1900s. The Minstrel shows were shows in which white performers would paint their faces black and act the role of an African American. This was called black facing. The minstrel show evolved from two types of entertainment popular in America out front 1830 the impersonation of blacks given by white actors between acts of plays or during circuses, and the performances of black musicians who sang, with banjo accompaniment, in city streets. The father of American minstrelsy was Thomas Dartmouth Daddy strain, who between 1828 and 1831 developed a song-and-dance mapping in which he impersonated an old, crippled black slave, dubbed Jim Crow. Jim Crow was a fool who just spent his whole day slacking off, dancing the day external with an occasional mischievous prank such as stealing a watermelon from a farm. Most of the skits performed on the Minstrel shows sy mbolized the life of the African American plantations slaves. This routine achieved immediate popularity, and Rice performed it with large(p) success in the United States and Britain, where he introduced it in 1836. Throughout the 1830s, up to the founding of the minstrel show proper, Rice had umteen imitators.In 1842, in New York City, the songwriter Daniel Decatur Emmett and three companions devised a program of singing and dancing in blackface to the accompaniment of bone castanets, violin, banjo, and tambourine. Calling themselves the Virginia Minstrels, they do their first public appearance in February 1843 in a New York City theater. Another group called the Christy Minstrels, headed by the actor Edwin P. Christy, began appearing a some years later and ... ... which he received universal praise. Other films included The Long Kiss Goodnight, Deep Blue Sea, The Negotiator, Unbreakable, and Shaft. Despite his fame as a great Hollywood actor, Jackson has made time for stage w ork and independent films in order to stay close to his acting roots.Samuel L Jackson has therefore came to appear in many great movies such as Jurassic Park, Pulp Fiction, A Time To Kill, One Eight Seven, Shaft, Coach Carter, Star Wars and many others. He has alike been nominated for many of these and has received many awards for a lot of these films. He is still acting and does not seem to be mentation of retirement any time soon. He truly is a great example of a great actor who rose to fame in the time of blaxploitation and also an inspiration to all those with addiction problems as someone who was able to overcome his problem and make something of himself.

The History of African Americans in Film Essay -- essays research pape

poet-singer sees were developed in the 1840s and reached its peak after the Civil War. They managed to remain popular into the early 1900s. The Minstrel shows were shows in which white performers would paint their faces black and act the role of an African the Statesn. This was called black facing. The minstrel show evolved from two types of entertainment popular in America before 1830 the impersonation of blacks given by white actors between acts of plays or during circuses, and the performances of black musicians who sang, with banjo accompaniment, in city streets. The father of American minstrelsy was Thomas Dartmouth Daddy Rice, who between 1828 and 1831 developed a song-and-dance routine in which he impersonated an old, crippled black slave, dubbed Jim Crow. Jim Crow was a fool who just spent his whole sidereal day slacking off, dancing the day away with an occasional mischievous prank such as stealing a watermelon from a farm. Most of the skits performed on the Minstrel show s symbolized the life of the African American plantations slaves. This routine achieved immediate popularity, and Rice performed it with great success in the United States and Britain, where he introduced it in 1836. Throughout the 1830s, up to the founding of the minstrel show proper, Rice had many imitators.In 1842, in New York City, the songwriter Daniel Decatur Emmett and three companions devised a program of singing and dancing in blackface to the accompaniment of bone castanets, violin, banjo, and tambourine. trading themselves the Virginia Minstrels, they made their first public appearance in February 1843 in a New York City theater. Another group called the Christy Minstrels, headed by the actor Edwin P. Christy, began appearing a few years later and ... ... which he received universal praise. Other films included The Long Kiss Goodnight, Deep Blue Sea, The Negotiator, Unbreakable, and Shaft. Despite his fame as a great Hollywood actor, capital of Mississippi has made met er for stage work and independent films in order to stay close to his acting roots.Samuel L Jackson has then came to appear in many great movies such as Jurassic Park, Pulp Fiction, A Time To Kill, One Eight Seven, Shaft, Coach Carter, sentiency Wars and many others. He has also been nominated for many of these and has received many awards for a lot of these films. He is still acting and does not seem to be thinking of retirement any time soon. He truly is a great example of a great actor who rose to fame in the time of blaxploitation and also an inspiration to all those with addiction problems as someone who was able to overcome his problem and make something of himself.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Biblical Foundations Essay

Curriculum development is establishing a plan of what a school is difference to teach during a school year. The time write of the curriculum can vary from a quarter to a semester to take down being taught the entire school year. Wayne (2010) suggests that each individuals personal scriptural worldview impacts each person in their beliefs and opinions about curriculum development differently. The stance taken by this individual is that of trying to see things in the realityner that matinee idol would want. God is all knowing and being all knowing, He knows what is best in all things at all times.The Bible says For by him all things were created things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities all things were created by him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things discombobulate together (Colossians 116-17). Developing a curriculum is not to be taken lightly. Prayer, studying the word of God, and meditatio n must all be a bankrupt of the development. The role of teachers is to not only teach our students the curriculum that is set before them but to be a leader and a role model. cosmos a role model is a scary concept. Scary because it means that one is to not just use the words that they speak but they atomic number 18 to show it by the way they act and live their life. Christian teachers have a tremendous job to accomplish. They influence not only the other teachers some them but also the students that they are around e actually day. The curriculum that is being taught is of the utmost importance but the Christian witness that is being shown is of even much importance. The public school system does not make this easy for those who are Christians.Speaking the word of God is prohibited within this setting. Knowing this, as Christian teachers, being a deliberate Christian role model is of the utmost importance. Many might say that this is impossible but that is far from the truth. The Bible says With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible (Matthew 1926). The Bible also says Everything is possible for him who believes (Mark 923). Teachers are some of the most innovative and inventive throng. Christian teachers are to use this to their benefit.The God we serve is the one and only living God and through him, all things are possible. This makes the possibilities of being a well(p) Christian role model limitless. The role of the learner today should be one of wanting to learn. Teachers can encourage this by using student-centered learning fit in to Blumberg (2008). This can be a very powerful way of getting the learner to want to learn. Student-centered learning does not have to be the entire concentrate on of the class. The focus hither could be put into place after the teacher has memoriseed the students.In a ninety minute class, the teacher is more than able to instruct the students, and then put them in student-centered learning. Th is helps the learner to focus on what they have learned and not on what the teacher is teaching according to Blumberg (2008). The approach here helps the learner to focus on what they need to be doing and less time on what is going on around them. In our party today, the biblical worldview is pronto being taken away while the modern worldview is silently creeping in to the minds of everyone.Scripture tells us Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light (2 Corinthians 1114). We, as Christians, are becoming so conditioned to being politically correct that we are forgetting what is biblically correct. We sit back and think that if we just ignore what is going on, then it will just go away. Instead of that, things have gotten worse and even our young children and adults are beginning to believe that what is taking place is alright. No prayer in school, it is the holiday break not Christmas break, it is spring break not Easter.A worldview is what we develop because of what is going on around us. Many do not even realize that their worldview is being formed or altered. When asked what their worldview is, many cannot even explain it, let alone tell you where their view came from. Todays Christian society needs to step up and take a stance on what needs to be taught within our public schools. Many in our Christian society have pulled their children out of the public school system to either put them into private Christian schools or to homeschool them.Although this is not wrong, it is not entire either. The government of today has been shaped and is being shaped by the beliefs of many different religions. The U. S. was the first western nation to be founded predominately by Protestants not papistic Catholics. That fact alone expresses Americas willingness to experiment with the novel and a defiance of tradition. Its history includes the emergence of utopian experiments, religious fanaticism, and opening the door to much(prenominal) exotic religions as Buddhism , Hinduism, Islam, and Taoism.Such has been the winding road of religious evolution in America (History of Religion in America). In trying to make the join States a place of religious exemption, our government has instead made the life of a Christian more difficult. The governments role in our society should be that of making sure that our children are educated to the standard possible. Although religious viewpoints should be left up to the families of the children, the government still needs to maintain that our freedom is not taken away within the schools.There does need to be guidelines that need to be established but without the persecution of believers of Christ. The church service needs to be very careful when getting involved with curriculum development outside of Christian schools. There are so many beliefs that are out there that if the church were to get too involved, the government could and has stepped in to tell us that all has to be taught or expressed. This is where the parents need to step up to the plate. Parents can perform and should become a part of the school. Becoming a part of the Parent Teacher Organization is a good start.Getting to know the teachers and expressing to them the needs that should be get out met for the students should be of the utmost important. Parents have the right to have a say in the development of the school curriculum. Done in the proper manner, parents can even have a powerful impact on the curriculum their children are taught. Being a part of the process instead of being a part of the problem is the best plan any parent should be a part of for their child. Teachers, learners, society, government, church and family all have an important role in growth curriculum.Each on has a specific role that affects each and every one of us. Teachers and learners work together every day. They get to know each other on a level that can and should encourage trust with one another. Society and government go hand in hand in e xpressing what the people of that particular area want. Church and families hold the values we want our children to have as well as the standards of life we want. The development of curriculum is to be held to a high standard. Each group that is listed above help to provide the high standard that our children deserve in the educational field.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Behind the Myth of Sisyphus Essay

The philosophical essay of The allegory of Sisyphus by Albert Camus was written in France, in 1942. Obviously during a very historical time of war in which had a lot of people on the edge. The piece of work written was motivated by what Camus thought about the situation during the time such as suicide, silliness and happiness. The import of worklihood was defined in some(prenominal) different ports, and with that being said Camus had seen so much that he had different values and searched for the the true about life and its purpose, plus what motivated a modest philosopher.Society took this essay as something very absurd and really didnt cope how to react to it but wonder how essenceful is life and what is to be valued and what shouldnt be. People were on the edge just thinking about these kind of things. peculiarly during this time people didnt know what to believe or what to have got faith on as well because of the war. Which is why society looked at this as dark occu rdy and couldve also been an eye-opener to others as well. Just something to keep their minds off the situation that was occurring.The World War II was happening at the moment and it was a historical disaster for many. When the Germans invaded France, Camus joined the French Resistance. He was in it for four long years and also wrote for a paper so he had to know a lot of information about the war. I am most certain that from the experience having gvirtuoso through the war made him realize many things about the values of life. It was during this period that Camus formalized his philosophy that human life was sacred, no matter how inexplicable existence of life might be. (Bree). Seeing the finale toll from the war any one layabout see how sacred life is. That is when he gradually started looking into lifes philosophy and he came up with the conclusion that life was absurd. misunderstood as a philosophy of hopelessness. Camus did holdthat life was absurd defying logical translatio n, and ultimately irrational. However, Camus considered life valuable and worth defending. (Bree). Basically, if you had an explanation and reason to what you were doing in life and if you considered it meaningful, and then it was meaningful. Other than that, according to Camuss philosophy it was absurd.While Camus was arranging and discovering new thoughts about philosophy, he happened to write The Myth of Sisyphus. It was a Greek myth about a man named Sisyphus who was punished to repeat a meaningless task of pushing a rock up a mountain and seeing it roll back down once it reached the top. Why push a rock if it is going to go down again. However, it bottom of the inning be meaningless but only if it was interpreted that way. This essay was written when he came to seek about the meaningless and the absurdity of life. When Camus came to the conclusion whether to find the meaning of life was suicide in a way it contradicted himself. Without man the absurd thronenot exist. (Camus) . Suicide is way to see how life is valuable but obviously hopeless to tell and demonstrated it to others philosophically. There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth life sentence amounts to dissolveing the fundamental question of philosophy. (Camus). Therefore, suicide is just really an absurd thing to do and impossible to prove the point.That it when Camus came up with the idea that happiness and absurdity are equivalent. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Sisyphus goes through a struggle pushing the rock but once he reaches the top he is, I believe, skilful for having accomplished it. He accomplished pushing it up after such a struggle. The struggle itself towards the heights is enough to fill a mans heart. One mustiness imagine Sisyphus happy. (Camus). Even though he was in a bad situation he saw the b sound side of it. all you were happy and realizing there are worst things than pushing a rock up a mountain, or sad because of the cheeseparing things other people have that you didnt. However, even though Sisyphus was happy for a moment, Camus thought it was absurd to be happy because Sisyphus knew his fate when he would reach the bottom of the mountain. Camus compared this to real life and it is the aforesaid(prenominal) awareness that an absurd man has in his life.The war strongly influenced Camuss thoughts. Historical revolt, rooted in metaphysical revolt, leads to revolutions seeking to eliminate absurdity by using murder as their central tool to take total control over the world. (Knopf). Philosophically, in the war murdering was eliminating absurdity and thinking that it would get that answer whether life is meaningful or not. To twenty-four hours society believes life is meaningful, however, there are a few who dont think so and therefore, they come down to committing suicide.That lead to Camus searching to see whether life is meaningful or not. When you discovery that life is mean ingless, you cant unrealized the truth about your life. You cant go back and live life while ignoring yourself that there is no purpose. Which again leads to suicide, who wouldnt want if knowing there is nothing for one in life at all. All you can have is hope for another day but even Camus argues that hope is not invariably a good thing it can also disappoint your expectations. I know it may seem confusing but as Camus believes that even the absurd cant be understood at times. So even if life is meaningless it is precious However, one cannot simply judge their own life and dramatize it is meaningless if you have not experienced everything. You cannot judge whether all you done was good or bad or if that was it in your life. Camus and Nietzsche are both similar in their own ways the only difference is that Nietzsche pursued for the truth about life and that life is meaningful. Nietzsches point was that be wholly subsisting means being aware of the negative as of the positive, fee ling pain, not shunning any experience, and embracing even in its strangest and hardest problems. (Arson).Then that is when Camus seems quite intricate because at first he declares that life is meaningless and when he reaches the end he is pretty much concluding that life is to clearly by judged to be better than others (Arson). Life is purely what we make of it and even Camus states at the very end of The Myth of Sisyphus that One must imagine Sisyphus happy. (Camus). That is why I fill up that Camus was absurd and essentially everyone was too. In all it was an absurd contradiction. The main theme shared thoughtout the course that can relate back and forth is truth and the good and evil. Camus mirrors Nietzsches own morality when he interrogates God as a moral instance. Both authors seem to start from afairly humanistic stall God is the constructed being, a named abstraction and an uplifted instance to distribute what is morally right and morally wrong. (Svenja) With that said h ow are we to judge ourselves to know what is wrong and right and from there on serve a purpose in life? If we judge ourselves to having done something evil we usually feel bad and sometimes do the absurd and commit suicide. But even committing suicide is bad because you will never find out if there was meaning behind the a someones life.So you cant even eliminate all the evil from the world. And if so, you cannot judge a person by their actions but philosophically judged on their intentions. these figures try to re-feel themselves but they can only do so when they accept their fate as their own and not made by society. (Svenja) In state to actually live life you must accept life and what becomes of it, meaningless or not, life will always be precious Correspondingly, Camus must hardihood his truth. Like Sisyphus, we are our fate, and our frustration is our very life we can never escape it. (Satre) As a society thats why we all must accept the truth in life and that is our fate as well. No matter if it has value, you must continue living, committing suicide is not the answer and by doing so you will prove to others that there can be meaningless lives. You cant escape it and you cant be absurd in Camuss philosophy either. Camus even detects a level of absurdity in Nietzsches philosophy as well. Truth is that Camus is absurd, maybe he is searching for meaning of life so much that it becomes irrational.Which in that case leads to him believing about suicide but knew he was never even going to find meaning that way at all. He would be never be able to tell how valuable life is. Therefore, Camus must be happy about life and its meaning so he can actually live life as it is. The only problem philosophers have is that they can never admit that absurdity in their thoughts, so they make a reason and figure out a way out of it. Thats the only way you can actually live life in happiness and still have fate even though you believe there is no meaning behind life. If you search for your meaning in life you will just dedicate all your time doing so, and never actually living life. One must value life day by day. However, in a way I do agree with Camus because if you have fate about the next day being better and then being disappointed about it, it is really saddening. So why have fate when you can just enjoy life as it goes and actually charm a value out of it. Just asSisyphus did, when he actually became happy even though his fate was struggling all over again. He valued that he was doing better than other people who were suffering at the same time. I believe thats how people should be in life, you should always seek out the good in bad situations no matter what. It is the only way people can live in true happiness. plant CitedArson, Ronald, Albert Camus The Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Spring 2012 Ed. Edward N. Zalta. ed. 2012. PrintBre, Germaine Camus, (New Jersey Rutgers University Press, 1959, 1961)Camus, Albert. Myth of Sisyphus. 194 2. PrintKnopf, A. Alfred. The Rebel An Essay on Man In Revolt, New York. 1954. Print.Svenja, Schrahe. Albert Camus and Friedrich Nietzsche Albert Camus Society. 2011. Print.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

A Letter To Myself Essay

No one knows you better than you know yourself. Moreover, out of on the whole you lead experience receiving a letter from yourself 50 old age forrard in space-time will be your most profound experience. So, here I am communicating with myself to inform what I have to look forth to in life.In writing Im remembering receiving this letter five decades ago. The odd thing is remembering its receipt but experiencing the writing for the basic time. With only 500 words, rather than focus on the strangeness addressing what will be is my mission. Your life will be a strange and cruel concoction of wonder and despair. You will experience a living nightmare for love. Youll marry a woman wholl turn out to be schizophrenic. Dealing with her will be more than troublesome, yet the finer qualities of your character will arise out of the ashes of that experience.Knowing I received this letter will not prevent you from having the experience. We all are purposed to play a role in life. Writing th is letter affirms some things are inevitable, even when you know about them in advance.Youre at an age where talk of marriage and difficult times are somewhat distant to your experience. Youre yet to reach your teen years and the joy those years will bring. Like yourself mom will undergo a troublesome marriage after she and dad divorce. What you see in her next marriage will be a prophecy for your own. In the midst of seeing her struggles will be happenings in your life that others will envy. Youll be very popular in high school and college. Youll turn out to be a champion sprinter and hurdler, youll sing in a singing group that will gain field prominence and youll have girlfriends that most men could only hope for. Your teen and early adult years will be rewarding. Those times I in time treasure all these years having passed.Your love for learning will be a beacon to illuminate the way through your marital troubles. Your field of study, along with your faith would be means to hel p you recover from troublesome times following your marriage. This will be a battle however, one that would probably go the average man. Youll spend almost two decades unraveling the turmoil you experienced in being married for one decade. In this youll get to know yourself as few people do. Youll become very wise and insightful as a result and youll be a blessing for what life will take you through.Do not be dismayed at what tomorrow will bring, it will lead to wonderful ends. You will have a son who will do well in life. A woman will come into your life who will be a dream come true and youll wind up content in your living. You will appreciate lifes foibles and remember , Try not to become a man of success but a man of value. (Albert Einstein, Great Quotations, pg. 225) Thats what youll do Im proud to say.ReferencesEinstein, Albert, The Great Quotations, 225, George Seldes, May, 1978.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Writing as an Artist

Detail makes the difference between boring and terrific typography. Its the difference between a pencil sketch and a lush vegetable oil painting. As a writer, words be your paint. Use all the colors. Rhys Alexander makes an interesting connection between authors and artists in his quote about piece of music. The view that writers ar indeed artists of a sort, gives us the opportunity to think about how words can become like paint applied to a canvas. The canvas, when one looks further, is genuinely our readers mind. This happens because the readers mind becomes the dwelling place where the full color and texture of our written ideas are absorbed and understood.Taking this idea of the artistic endeavors of writing a step further, a writer, like an artist, is most often influenced by the environment around them. Would Monets painting of water lilies brook turned out so ascetic if the day had been dull and rainy, thus altering his mood to reflect a dull and listless pond? As write rs our environment touches on our senses and perceptions, altering our mood and in addition our writing thus adding to our strengths and weaknesses, and giving our words the vibrancy and hues we need to paint our canvas.A bedchamber is a wonderful safe haven from the chaos of everyday life. In this manner we rest, dream and spend time with our own being in wide-eyed comfort. These sensations of relaxation and solitude form the basis of why I choose it as my primary writing environment. Here I can mix the ideas, opinions and info I have collected from the right(prenominal) world and make a work of art that reflects my own inner thoughts of the experiences of which I write about.In my room I can be as creative as I like, without others to criticize or influence my words. Granted, people will do that later once the work is complete but while its being created, its completely my own. The comfort of my room strengthens my writing because it adds to my feelings of comfort and secur ity.These perceptions allow me to search deeper and mayhap write with more courage about how I feel. If I were to do this anywhere else I would fear that others would judge my words and ideas even before the writing is finished. Then I might not find the nerve to write my own thoughts and opinions, but rather someone elses. In this sense, solitude and comfort help oneself me paint my verbal canvas with clarity.Solitude and comfort in a bedroom can however be a weakness due to the position that it at times feels like the same old thing and induces writers block. Sometimes the feelings of our surroundings lock us into a repetitive pattern, and briefly we find that all of our writings begin to take on similar qualities with no unique flare to make them original. For this problem, sometimes it is best to escape to the outside world and gather more data, or try and capture someone elses enthusiasm for a topic.When this is not available however, altering a writing environment can help. Open the blinds, let some sunshine in, or maybe even close them and try writing by candle light. These are paths that can improve if not the writing environment itself, at least the writers mood. Hanging inspiring paintings or photos on the smother may or turning on music that suits the feelings we are trying to convey may also be helpful. Sometimes writers have to be as creative with their environment as they are with their words.Thus far we have seen that a writers environment touches on their senses and perceptions, altering their mood and also their writing thus adding to their strengths and weaknesses, and giving their words the vibrancy and hues they need to paint their canvas. I have only minimally explored and shared with you what my environment way to me and how I can improve it if needed. However, I hope that you as the reader have gotten a glimpse of where and why I create my art the way I do. I believe that each of us is inspired by the environment around us, whether it be the crashing of a thunderstorm or the slow watertight roll of the ocean waves lulling us to sleep.Works CitedAlexander, Rhys. (author of webpage unknown).

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Introduction to Criminal Justice Essay

The federal official criminal justice system comprise of federal courts, corrections, and constabulary enforcement agencies. The United cites Attorneys is the primary agency taking charge of cases involving the U. S. government as a party and in collecting debt owed to the federal government. The federal judiciary has a Supreme appeal, appellate courts, and trial or district courts. Federal virtue enforcement agencies derive their function from the U. S. Constitution and federal laws while the articulate law enforcement obtains authority from the raise constitution and legislations.The difference in source of authority, which determines jurisdiction and role, determines whether a criminal case is a federal or state matter. Federal Criminal Justice System The criminal justice system in the States today comprise of courts, corrections and law enforcement operating at the topical anaesthetic, state and federal level (Samaha, 2006). These tiers of decision-making operate inde pendently according to the scope of their jurisdictions. The discussion focuses on the federal level relative to the local and state levels.The U. S.Department of Justice comprises the primary criminal investigative and law enforcement agency at the federal level. The contribution of the United States Attorneys, which falls under the U. S. Department of Justice, comprise the principal litigators assigned to judicial districts, within which each Unite States Attorney exercise the role as the chief federal law enforcement officer for the United States. The United States Attorneys Office mainly prosecutes cases involving the United States as a party and collect debt owed to the U. S. ederal government as provided by Title 28, Section 547 of the U. S. Code. (United States Attorneys, 2009) The federal judiciary or court system emerged from Article III of U. S. Constitution. This has three tiers of decision-making. At the top is the U. S. Supreme Court comprised of the Chief Justice and eight associate justices handling cases involving important constitutional or federal questions of law that originated in the state or the federal courts. In the middle is the appellate court, made-up of 94 judicial districts pooled into 12 regional circuits.The U. S. Court of Appeals in every circuit handles appealed cases coming from the district courts or federal administrative agencies as well as handles appeals of special cases. At the lower level is the trial court comprised of the district courts, with criminal and civil jurisdiction. The Court of outside(a) Trade and the U. S. Court of Federal Claims are special trial courts. (Samaha, 2006 Understanding the federal courts, 2009) Federal law enforcement agencies derive their authority from the U. S.Constitution.Article 1, Section 8 provides the power of Congress to en influence laws needed in executing governmental powers. The constitutional powers of Congress accords federal law enforcement agencies with the authority to op erate. Whenever, Congress enacts a statute, it designates the federal agency responsible for enforcement of this law. The provisions of the enacted laws assigned for enforcement to federal agencies indicate the limit and scope of the authority of the federal agencies. (May et al. , 2008)The difference in the role of federal agents and state or local law enforcement officers lies in the jurisdiction and scope of authority. A federal agent has a wider jurisdiction but with a narrower scope of authority determined by federal statutes. Federal law emanates from the constitution that empowers the U. S. Congress to enact laws at the federal level. State or local law enforcement officers use up narrower jurisdiction limited only to the boundaries of the state or locality but with broader scope of authority covering the enforcement of all laws applicable to the state or locality.State/local laws come from the state legislatures obtaining authority from the state constitution. (May et al. , 2008) Investigation or prosecution of a crime is a federal matter when the criminal act or issue are covered by federal law or the U. S. Constitution, the U. S. government is a party, special cases within the authority of the federal law justice system, and other cases within federal question jurisdiction. A crime is under state jurisdiction in cases violating the criminal laws of the state.The state holds broad jurisdiction of various cases but with the exception of those falling under the exclusive statutory jurisdiction of the federal courts. (May et al. , 2008) It makes sense to have dual criminal statutes in the federal and state systems covering the same offense. In case of common jurisdiction over an offense, such as discrimination in employment, the parties can opt to level in case in federal or state courts.There are also ways of distinguishing jurisdiction such as the diversity jurisdiction of the federal courts in cases involving residents of two different states over a controversy amounting to more than $75,000 dollars. (May et al. , 2008) The federal criminal justice system operates independently from state and local criminal justice by having its constitutional and federal statute determined jurisdiction. However, it has links with local and state criminal justice in hearing appeals of cases originating from the state courts on grounds of pertinent issues of law.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Civil Disobedience : Bane of Boon to the Concept of Just Society? Essay

Even as the nations are engaged in tackling the menace of terrorism among its rank and file, the debate over what makes a righteous family has renewed itself with fresh questions evolving expose of it, especi on the wholey from the perspective of elegant noncompliance, where issues on ethics, emotion, justification and morality are embedded in an inseparable right smart and therefore add complexities in the comprehension of just society.Thus this paper weighs some(a) pertinent points involving the concept of just society from the perspective of civil disobedience before arriving at an inference on whether civil disobedience is a bane or a boon to the concept of just society. A plan Definition of Just Society Just Society refers to a particular condition of a society, where its egresss enjoy some granting immunity beyond rightfulnesss that are framed, provided that freedom should ideally be directed towards garnering collective benefits for the society. This facility of a ci tizen goes down under the head of fair treatment of the state to its subjects and is commonly known as social justice.With time, this freedom has become a medium of the thinkers and well wishers of the society to share and air their views to draw the attention of the government on several issues pertaining to the upbeat of the concerned society. Different political ideas, ideologies or situations create different interpretings of a just society. As for example, the left-wing ideology could prescribe an extensive use of income redistribution later on judging its present state as a deterrent to the just society, while a right-wing political party could stress on philanthropy, return market system or charity to attain social justice for the society.However, the broad base of just society is powered by the concepts like comparability and human rights. A Brief Definition of civic Disobedience The briefest definition of civil disobedience could be like an act guided by conscience to wards preventing or developing a condition in the society, which might overstep certain areas of written law, yet that overstepping is not intended to oppose the law. Civil disobedience is supposed to be an discovercome of a serious observation of any flaw or the scope of development in the society, totally back up by moral and ethical values and totally devoted towards a positive change in the society.Here the gray area lies in the quality of such an observation and inference. For example, a convention of thinker might observe that certain areas of taxes are burdening the citizens and thus be waived, while another group might observe a positive impact of taxes on the citizen. However, civil disobedience is supposed to act under the guideline of equality and human rights and it has to be morally justified. Understandably, these preconditions are liable to vary according the laws of various states. The QuestionsThe preconditions of civil obedience raises certain questions like why a civil disobedience would be considered as anarchy, if it fails to remain within such preconditions like moral justification or total submission to the written law of the land. Reasonably, questions like that evolve out of human rights parameter or the natural human qualities like emotion where driven by the cause, one might go overboard and breach the law to end up in the prison. There are questions too, about the applicable yardstick of identifying the nature of civil disobedience or di yardbirduishing it from ordinary offences.Civil disobedience is generally not considered as a crime in a democratic society. Thus, if a civil disobedient is jailed or otherwise punished, it becomes a recognized offence, which, in other words, stands as a different interpretation of the persons motive. Perhaps it is for this reason even the founder of the very mintage civil disobedience, Henry David Thoreau, once rued over the apathy of the society towards the plight of the intellectuals who rais e voice for the society itself after he was jailed for refusing to give way the state poll tax to American government as a protest against governmental plan to prosecute a war in Mexico.An stir up Thoreau wrote in his essay Only a very few people heroes, martyrs, patriots, reformers in the best sense serve their society with their consciences, and so necessarily suffer society for the most part, and are commonly treated by it as enemies (Thoreau, 1991). Towards Making a Just SocietyThus questions like above authorize another query like what makes a just state, and stress on garnering more flexibility through legal parameters instead of leaving the subject on the leniency of the government like when, in spite of acting on moral drive, a civil disobedient stands at a overlap where the state can either overlook his/her offence or jail him/her. In either of the action, the government stands to loose if it overlooks the situation it might be fault for not doing its duty, and if it imprisons the person, it might be condemned of violating human rights.This indicates that to create a just state, states have a role to formulate a convincing script of the socio-economic class of justice like Compensatory (corrective) justice, Retributive justice or Distributive justice. The observation of Thoreau as mentioned earlier, also points towards another roadblock towards making a just society. Since the kitchen stove of values like transparency, security, privacy, integrity and autonomy cannot be fully defined by the scripts of justice, the governmental interpretations of them can invoke mixed reaction among people some might resort to civil disobedience, some might remain skeptic to the situation.Majority should be able to justify the situation and their best role in it, before pursuing a cause. Thus people should be equipped to meet the standards of civil disobedience or to reap any benefit out of it Justified civil disobedience, says John Rawls, can serve to inhibit departures from justice and to correct departures when they occur thus it can act as a stabilising force in society (Rawls, 1971). This situation speaks about the important role of the civil society too that it is their duty to educate and inform the plenty about the nature of civil disobedience (direct or indirect) and the possible consequences attached to them.Alongside it should be a joint effort by state and the civil society to spread awareness about how civil disobedience differs from legal protest, rule departures and conscientious objection and more importantly how it has no relation with the breaking away groups like radical protesters and extremists. CONCLUSION There can be no doubt that civil disobedience keeps the society lively and interacting, besides being implemental in guarding the common interest of people through the conscientious voice of the citizens. Without this vigilance, the concept of just society cannot be put into action.While the governmenta l interpretation of just society determines the scope and outcome of civil disobedience, the clarity of perception of the civil society about just society keeps civil disobedience motion on its desired track. Thus, both state and the civil society have to share the task of disseminating appropriate education at the every corner of the society to invoke awareness on judiciary system and the scope of civil rights. This awareness would then automatically serve as a shield to the civilians and as an alert to the state.However, in the modern context of terrorism or increasing rate of violence, some might opine that civil disobedience has lost its sting which is in fact, not true. Now the new world order evokes global citizens to resort to civil disobedience on global issues like terrorism or environment, which might have no bearing with the local states policy or its actions. This speaks about how the civil societies across the globe have fitting itself to the new avatar of civilizati on they are now connected to one another for the sake of making a just global society all the while depending on a common tool like civil disobedience.Thus, in both of its new and old role, civil disobedience proves to be a boon to the concept of just society. EndsWorks CitedRawls, John (1971), A Theory of Justice. Cambridge Harvard University Press. Thoreau, Henry David (1991), Civil Disobedience in Civil Disobedience in Focus. Hugo A. Bedau (ed. ), capital of the United Kingdom Routledge. Works Consulted Brownlee, K. (2007). Civil Disobedience. Web Article. Retrieved on Dec 1, 2007, from http//plato. stanford. edu/entries/civil-disobedience/FeaCivDis Civil Disobedience. Web Article. Retrieved on Dec 1, 2007, from http//www. answers. com/topic/civil-disobedience

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Macbeth’s Letter Essay

I am writing to you as I know that you go out keep the contents of this letter a secret. The last few days bugger off been very strange and unreal to me. I cannot believe how much my living has changed in such a short space of time. I ask you to please destroy this letter erst you have read it and not furcate a soul about what it contains as I have committed a terrible crime.A couple of days ago I was a noble warrior fighting against Nor vogue and now Im king of Scotland. With my brandishd steel I approached the leader of the Norwegians, Macdonald, and unseamd him from the nave to thchaps and fixd his head on our battlements to show everyone he was dead. Norway were defeated.After the battle, Banquo and I walked along the moors and we came across three weird sisters that looked nothing I had ever seen on this earth. They greeted me by construction All hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Glamis, All hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Cawdor, All hail Macbeth that shalt be king hereafter. At this greeting I was or else shocked and confused. True I was Thane of Glamis notwithstanding Thane of Cawdor and king? The Thane of Cawdor lived and as was the king. I was puzzled. Were these prophecies real? Whilst I was lost in my thoughts, Banquo asked them to predict something for him as they had for me. They told him that his children sh all(prenominal) be kings but he provide not be king himself. I ordered them to stay and tell me more but they were unwilling to be ordered by me and vanished into thin air. I do not think Banquo believed his prophecies as much as I did mine.We carried on walking and talked about the witches. Then we dictum two men coming towards us. They said that the king had sent them because he had heard of my success in battle. One of the men said the king bade him to invite me Thane of Cawdor I asked him why he was dressing me in borrowd robes. He explained to me that the old thane of Cawdor was a traitor and would be executed. I could not help thinking that the greatest was behind. I accordinglyce thought a terrible thought. Murdering king Duncan to become king. I pushed the thought out of my head and told myself if chance will have me king, why chance may crown me without my stir. I did not have to get involved in order to become king.We made our way to the kings headquarters and king Duncan told me how grateful he was for what I had done in battle. I told him it was an honour to fight for him and I felt it was my duty to him. He then made a startling announcement. His eldest son Malcolm was named the Prince of Cumberland I could not help feeling angry on hearing this. Malcolm stood in my way of go king. I felt as though I was not in control of my feelings. One minute I was loyal and the next I had these malevolent thoughts. They disturbed me but I could not stop them. I pleaded, stars hold your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires. I did not want some(prenominal)one to see these terrible thoug hts I had. Duncan said that he was to stay at my castle that night so I left at once to inform my wife of his arrival.I sent a letter on to doll Macbeth to inform her of the meeting with the witches, their prophecies and my becoming Thane of Cawdor. I know she thinks that I cannot figure on my ambitions and that I am too kind to act on the information that the witches gave to me. When I arrived I told her I told her about Duncan coming to stay. She encouraged the liking of get rid ofing him. She told me to look like thinnocent flower but be the serpent undert. I was to look innocent but be order to strike. I felt she was taking control of this situation. She overpowered me. I was not allowed to speak. I told her I needed to think about it but she did not listen and told me to go all the rest to her.When Duncan arrived, Lady Macbeth greeted him as my mind was too full with other thoughts. I know she showed gratitude towards him and showed fake loyalty. I could not have been il l-considered to his face. I left the feast to be alone. I thought that if I were to murder Duncan it would be best to do it quickly. But how I hoped it would be the obliterate of it without any consequences because I knew that with murder would come horrible consequences. I was confused as to what I should do. I was his subject. I looked up to him as king. I was his host. I should be protecting him not murdering him. I thought Duncan is no enemy of mine. He is my king. He has been a good king so far. If he was to be murdered then everyone would be horrified and there would be a wild protest. Everyone would be looking for the murderer. The only thing I had to make me murder him was my ambition and that alone is not alone. Lady Macbeth came to me and I told her we would proceed no further in this business.She called me a coward and said that if I told her to kill her child then she would do so. She had managed to change my mind. If we should fail? I asked her. She told me we would no t fail and that Duncan would sleep easily after his long journey. She then said that she would convince his two guards to have some wine. They would be unaware of what is happening. Then when Duncan was dead we would smear blood on their limbs and let them bear the guilt of our great quell. At that moment I could not help admiring Lady Macbeth. I told her she should only have male children for she has great strength and courage. She told me that no one would suspect us because we would be agitated with sadness at the news of his death. My mind was made up. I told her that every bit of me was going to work at this murder. Part of me wanted to show I could do this and that I was not a coward.I was walking around the castle later that night when I came across Banquo and his son. Banquo told me he dreamt of the witches and how their prophecies had come reliable for me. I lied to him and told him that I did not think of them. I had to lie as I was about to kill the king. After Banquo l eft I saw in front of me a pricker. It looked as real as the one I had in my belt. It was pointing towards Duncans chamber. I saw blood on the dagger that was not on there before. My disturbed mind was showing me things that were not there. Suddenly a bell rang and I made my way towards Duncans chamber.When I returned to my wife from Duncans chamber I heard her say that she would have murdered him herself if he did not remind her of her father. I was anxious. I looked at my hands. It was a sorry sight. Lady Macbeth tried to get me to snap out of it. I told her that as I came out of the chamber I had heard someone saying their prayers in their room and how I could not even bring myself to utter the word amen. I felt cursed. She told me I should not think about it. I could not help thinking that it was the end of me. My wife warned me that to dwell on these things would make me mad. I felt mad at that moment. I had lost all control. I had murdered sleep. I did not think I would ever be able to sleep again. My wife told me to go and wash my hands. It was then that she detect I still had the daggers. She ordered me to go and put them back.I told her I would not go back into that room. I was frightened. I couldnt find any ounce of bravery within me. I could not face going in there again. She was disgusted with me and told me I was acting like a child. She told me to confide it all to her. She took control once again. She returned the daggers and smeared the guards with Duncans blood. I became jumpy.I looked blast at my hands again. I believed that I had so much blood on them that it could change the whole sea red if I were to put them in it. I felt a sense of disgust as I stared down at the blood. Lady Macbeth returned from the chamber and her hands too were covered in blood. She called me a coward. She seemed so certain that a little water would clear us of this deed. I was not so sure. I did not feel like myself anymore. I did not feel like the noble warrior I once was. I heard knocking and wished that it would wake Duncan up and rewind this whole tragedy.Now I am king. I will not bore you with how it all happened. I consternation that people will suspect me. I think Mcduff already does. I fear that I will have to kill again to ensure that Lady Macbeth and myself are not found out. I only hope you will be able to forgive the terrible sins I have committed.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Discrimination in sport Essay

The Project to Eliminate Homophobia in athletics is a collaborative effort involving seven leading national organizations and is designed to create an educated universal that respects all athletes and diversions-affiliated personnel regardless of familiar orientation and gender identity/expressions. The Project has quatern main goals EDUCATION Educate athletes, their parents, guardians, coaches, administrators and the public, plus some other key influencers about the origins and effects of homophobia in cavort and the relationship of homophobia to sexism and gender oppression.RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION Cultivate and develop diversified resources to ensure the effectiveness, intensity and strength of the Project to Eliminate Homophobia in Sport. ADVOCACY Advocate for fair policy guidelines on teams, at events and within the workplace for lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) sport professionals, athletes and fans in sport. RECOGNITION To publicly love the athleti c achievements and professional successes of openly LGBT sports participants, thereby providing healthy role models. exerciseive Sports Partnerships achieve Racial comparison Standard Three Active Sports Partnerships (ASPs) have become the first ASPs to achieve the front Level of the light Equals Achieving Racial Equality A Standard for Sport. The three Active Sports Partnerships Bucks and Milton Keynes, Humber and West Yorkshire were assessed by a speciate panel chaired by Chris Hudson of Sheffield Hallam University reporting to the Sporting Equals Assessment Panel.The ASPs joined five governing bodies Amateur summercater Association, Amateur Swimming Association, British Canoe Union, Rugby Football Union for Women and UK Athletics who were also awarded Preliminary Level by a panel consisting of representatives from Sport England and Sporting Equals, as well as representatives from other national governing bodies of sport. The sports and sports organisations already awarded the Preliminary Level are basketball, cricket, hockey, gymnastics, Institute of Sport and Recreation Management, lawn tennis, rugger league, rugby union and sportscoach UK and Sportsmatch.Chris Hudson, a Lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University and the Chair of the Active Sports Assessment Panel, said We foretaste that this recognition of the commitment and success of the first three Partnerships bequeath be a catalyst to further others to achieve the Standard. Trevor Brooking, the Chair of Sport England said I would like to congratulate these Active Sports Partnerships on sign language up to the Standard and would like to see all the Partnerships follow their lead.Sport England expects all sports to put policies, procedures and plans in place to tackle racism and promote racial equality. What Is contrariety? Discrimination has various forms and it happens real day. Discrimination involves making choices about how we treat other people. Those choices can be made using real and pe rtinent information or they can be based on prejudice, stereotypes and bias. Some is unlawful (for example, sexual agony and racial discrimination)and some is not (for example, a coach who shows favouritism towards their child over other players). on the whole discrimination is undesirable if it leads to unfair treatment of players, members and other participants in recreation and sport. What is Fair Discrimination? A good example in sport relates to team selection. If you are a coach/selector, and you have more than players than you can fit in your team, you must discriminate between the available players. You must choose who will be in the starting team and what positions they will play, to arrive at the best possible team.In junior and sub junior sport you have the additional responsibility to ensure fair participation. Those choices should be based upon relevant criteria such(prenominal) as ability, attitude, effort, and attendance at practice. These are all fair and real cri teria to apply to team selection. What is Unlawful Discrimination? In sport, this is not easy to define. The Equal Opportunity Act makes discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, age, disability, pregnancy, sexuality and marital status unlawful.The laws also say that two behaviours, sexual harassment and victimisation are also unlawful. However, things like age, gender and disability can have very significant effects on sporting ability. These differences are most evident at the elite sport level. For example compare the power of the best male tennis players with the power of the best female tennis players. To take into account these differences, and to make sure there is fair competition, the law allows for teams to be organised into groups such as age groups, or single sex groups.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

In what ways television affects Essay

force I propose to find out what children say approximately how television affects their play. Socialisation is a real important concept in sociology and the role of the mass media is highly debateable. Many sociologists believe that media effects get weaving by setting out an overall relationship between media and its audience. They atomic number 18 often called models of media effects. I go forth interview the children these interviews pass on be unstructured. The children go out be interviewed separately. Gender go away be a relation I look at to and whether the gender affects whom the children accompany.CONTEXTS AND CONCEPTS The get a line of Bandura Ross and Ross procedures the term of social learning theory to rove that children copy demeanour another example of this is copycat effect prime in H geezerhoodll & Newburns study. In my research impart ask the children whether they say they act violently due to the violent content they may have viewed and whether they have chosen to imitate these programs. Hagell & Newburns study compared young offenders viewing behaviour with non-offending teenagers.They found the differences were few between the two groups and what they watched, with hardly any having seen the films that were causing the concern at that time. A few members of either group had an interest in a violent output. The young offenders had less(prenominal) access to distinguishable media types. Other factors instead of media could have been causing the differences in their behaviour. The other context cosmos analysed is Bandura Ross Ross who looked at whether children learnt behaviour through observation. This is the idea of the social learning theory.Children were made to watch a violent model be aggressive towards a five-foot bobo doll. Later the children were given an aggressive arousal and then taken to another board where they were monitored as to how they reacted towards the bobo doll, after seeing a model do this. The d ifferent concepts are is copycat violence this is violence that occurs as a result of copying what is seen in the media. Catharsis another theory is the functioning where tension is relieved, for example violence on screen that provides a safe outlet for peoples violent inclination.The final concept is desensitisation some theorists argue that the constant media diet of violence makes them less sensitive to real human suffering. These concepts tie in with the idea children are passive sociologists believe this, children act easily to everything. This is the reason for watershed on T. V at 9pm because what comes on television isnt fitting enough for children and in that respect is a fear that the children will imitate this behaviour. (337) MAIN RESEARCH METHOD AND REASONSThe rule I will be using is by interviewing the children by asking them to explain the reason for their behaviour. The questions I will ask the children will be questions not only requiring the answers that I ne ed but there will be a series of distracting questions so the children will not know the aim of the questions macrocosm asked. Interviews are an advantage because it is better to gather all the information needed for an interview because you get to picture what the interviewees true opinions are.Interviews are flexible and can be used in different ways also the ethical advantage is consent of the participants the theoretical advantage is that at applies to the law of interpretivists (Action theory). You can use empathy to understand their opinions in depth these methods generate higher levels of validity of these results. They give a general arrangement of the problem, there is less pressure on the interviewee and their answers are more spontaneous. Important concepts are uncovered about the information that will help me conclude whether the children imitate what they watch.When interviewing the children I will be asking them which programs they imitate and this will give me an insight into whether there is a pattern with what they watch. The render I will be using for the interviews are of children from the ages of five to ten years old, because at this stage of childhood where television will be their main interest and there is a large variety if television for children of these ages also this is the age children are most likely to be influenced by the media.The genders of the children being used are varied so I will be using five boys and five girls. The children all come from the Borough of Newham of East Lon turn in. It is easier for me if the children are living in the same borough there will be an easier access to these children and it will be easier for me and the children. The sample of the children I will be studying is opportunity sampling as the sample depends on whether the adults outfit to their children being in the sample.The consent for whether the child will participate will be the decision of the adults. In Banduras study he gave the c hildren an aggressive arousal and in this study will not do this as the aggressive arousal means that the children could have acted violently because of the arousal given and not because they were imitating the models behaviour. (425) POTNETIAL PROBLEMS The interviews of the get along of children I will be looking at can be very time consuming.With this study I need to be aware that the sample isnt appropriate enough to apply to the entirely population because all the children are from the same place setting and all from a similar ethical background and there may be a pattern in their behaviour. The main practical issue is whether the adults will allow their children to take part in the study. These types of questionnaires are basically a conversation dominates by the interviewer. These unstructured interviews may also go off the initial idea of what is being interviewed.Also with the amount of children I will be looking at and the sample of children I will be looking at there wi ll be a lot of activity so it may be sticky to record all of their behaviour. These interviews are more difficult to analyse, and there are less details provided on the concept being asked. Ethical problems are mental harm to the children if they dont like the questions being asked of them. Right to withdraw will be an ethical issue also because the children may not sense of smell they have the right to leave and stop asking the questions.The final ethical issue is informed consent, which will be coming from the child and not the parents. The children should be able to make the decision but when a child is involved the parents have the consent. Time consumption is a practical issue through decision time to interview ten children. Being able to get the children to understand the question and also to second may be difficult. Likewise another ethical issue is the children may not understand the debriefing. If they dont understand the debriefing there will be an issue of this ethical guideline and the parents will also have to also be debriefed too.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Information Assurance Essay

info Assurance (IA) lowlife be referred to as the process that involves in the management of perils that ar closely related to the usage, processing, storage and electronic transfers of teaching. This field has been birthed by nurture security, a field in computer security. Information Assurance is aimed at availability, earmark, non-repudiation, integrity and confidentiality of education and information placements gum olibanum serving as a defense and protection greensward for electronic information.The process of Information Assurance commences with the act of specifying and classifying the assets of the information to be protected. This process of information condition and classification is done objectively taking into contemplation the nature, source and the purpose of the information in focus. This is followed by risk assessment that is done by Information Assurance practitioner who has to put into consideration the likelihood and the impact of the undesired actions t hat may negatively affect the disclosure of the information in storage to unlicensed individuals.It is at this stage that the both qualitative and the quantitative value of the risk in relation to the flowing situation and predictable hazard is determined. Moreover, the IA practitioner develops a risk management plan that puts forward the countermeasures that sight probably mitigate, accept, eliminate or transfer the risks. The plans in addition puts into consideration the detection, prevention and response towards the emergent or prospective perils (Qian, Tipper, Krishnamurthy, 2008). During the plan development, various frame works apprize be employed such as ISO 17799, PCIDSS, ISO/IEC 27002 or CobiT.Procedures and policies such as frequent data and information backups and configuration hardening, inst eitheration of anti-virus programs and firew wholes are among the countermeasures that bottom of the inning be single-valued functiond. Other activities allow ind as counte rmeasures are trainings and the restructuring of the computer network systems which put in rear end computer emergence response group (CERT) or computer security incident response team (CSIRT). These countermeasures aim at managing, extenuating or totally eliminating the forthcoming risks in the most cost-effective manner.Later, implementation, interrogatory and evaluation of the plan are undertaken through various designed methodologies such as formal audits. An overhaul, know as the service integrity service is put in place to protect the resources of the system from inadvertent unwarranted change, destruction or loss (Rogers, 2004). The systems authenticator, also referred to as the system administrator, bears the wide-cut authorization mandate and it is only through his certification and accreditation that a third party or some(prenominal) other soul can access the information in store.In addition, liaison of the authenticator with the user representative and the program manager grants equal access rights to the protected information. The above three officials also bind to decide agreeably on the most appropriate approaches to be instituted in an attempt to meet all the information security prerequisites. at one time they meet identified these methodologies, they also highlight on the security remedies that are satisfying. The authenticators leadership, these information system officials are bestowed with the obligation to oversee the activities of the information system security.So as to be able to access the information in the system, the authenticator has to issue a announcement indicating that approval has been granted to the any alleged declaration holder to operate the automated information system (AIS). Included in this declaration are the sets of standardized rules and regulations that must be adhered to the latter by all users having the right of access to the stored information. These prescriptions are aimed at safeguarding the inform ation in store and the Automated Information system at large.Besides this declaration, data security can be ensured by the use of logins, passwords and digital certificates which are specifically issued to those users who are sanctioned (May, et al, 2004). The former is not so much campaigned for but instead, the latter and the use of biometric techniques such as voice and fingerprints as regarded as more secluded methods. Computer information attackers arrive devised ways to overwrite and also override these login passwords and as a result, this safety methodology is rarely relied upon.Once authentication has been granted, encryption of the sensitive data is done to avert it from eavesdropping and other related computer information crimes. During the process of authentication personal information is gathered and entered into the automated system which aids in the persons identification. As a result, the party is issued with a credential. This credential validates the user identi ty claim when he/she is accessing the controlled and protected assets or information. In pursuit to ensure more safety over the stored information, multi-factor authentication has been employed.The multi-factor authentication process is subject to various environments and other technological rudiments and varies depending on these two aspects (Department of the Army, 2007). These techniques may include network architecture controls, remote network access, network sniffers and securing network ports. Failure to conform to or sweep any of the above mentioned authentication methodologies will expose the stored data to computer information systems defaulters who can slyly bypass weak technical controls.Consequently, they distort the information. This distortion may vary from mere acts such as modifying the main memorys information after having read it to causing notable and probably irreversible behavior of the schedulers which are finally associated with the crashing of the entire in formation systems with large volumes data loss. In addition the can disable the firewall module packet filtering by transforming the image such that the agents in-memory store computer code starts working inappropriately (Larry, 2009).This may render the agent disabled from accessing the system. Once automated information attacker gains this unauthorized opportunity to access to the clients information he has the freedom to perform dynamic data modifications. Besides, he can access the system management memory (SMM) handler. The end result of this will be a system management random access memory (SMRAM) cache-based attack. Computer information criminals also alter the information systems operating codes.Moreover, they can access clients personal and confidential expand such personal identification numbers and probably financial institutions information thus ending up in a big loss in their finances. National and scientific databases have been prepared and managed by the government s of various states. Moreover, academic organizations and research institutions are also reliable. However, these stakeholders have to take dandy attention during the auditing of the information, especially those received from partnerships with other organizations to avoid errors that may be disastrous in the future.In information assurance, the information flowing in the associated institutions should be confidential as earlier said and also the informations integrity should be well safeguarded. In ensuring that the information meets these prerequisites, the British standards well implemented. Information assurance standards are also published a template in the IA website. Moreover, the Defense Information Systems post (DISA) site contains these standards which are also coordinated with the MCNOSC.Therefore in conclusion, information assurance can be basically taken to mean the information operations (IO) aimed at information and information systems (IS) protection. This is achie ved through the information assurance standards that see the achievement of information availability, its integrity, confidentiality, authentication and non-repudiation. The realization of these standards ensure the refurbishment of IS through the conjugation of restoration, detection, fortification and reaction competences

Friday, May 17, 2019

Green Building

Table of Contents Introduction. 1 I. Improving button Efficiency1 II. environmental Benefits of Building reverse lightning.. 9 III. Social Benefits.. 12 IV. LEED Certification 12 Conclusion. 15 survey Cited. 16 form 1 3 date 2. 5 count on 3. 5 Figure 4. 6 Figure 5. 7 Figure 6. 9 Figure 7. 9 Figure 8. 10 Figure 9. 2 Figure 10.. 13 Table I Energy cost . 2 Table II Top 10 Energy Saving Design Strategies 8 Executive Summary The environment has been a substantial radical of discussion lately. This is due to the lack of free verve cost-effective products in our cars, homes, makes, and formulation. Health attention facilities argon one of the lifesizest vital force consumers in the country. in that respect is so much need to keep up with life safety and health standards that the healthc be industry doesnt look at the queen-size picture of the effects of si newlyly preservation and the risks it could cause in the future.The purpose of this report is to inform healthca rgon off-keyicials and any individual that could be do by non building immature, the benefits of competency competency, environmental and social benefits, and last but not least(prenominal) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification, or LEED certification. Energy efficiency plays the some most-valuable roll in building spirt. In order to save the environment in the future we moldiness save muscularity. There ar several divergent ways to do this.Using solar power strength would reduce the use of electricity by burning less coal, jut outing roofs to grow plans to reduce incite loss in the winter months and keep cool in the summer months and at the same sequence creating an eco-friendly home ground for nature, decl atomic number 18ling the use of pissing supply efficiency, fairylikeing efficiency by using natural light instead of artificial, using specific materials during building and e actuallyday uses to be economic, and using proper heating and cooling techniques. Environmental benefits booster to enlarge to life expectancy of our environment by reducing our emissions output and control our hook management.You can read also Thin Film Solar CellInvolving much people into verdure building consists of social efficiency. Social efficiency creates a healthier lifestyle and ameliorate health by adding a bike rack to the entrance of a building to encourage the idea of riding bikes to and from the building. in conclusion LEED certification regulates the way we build third estate to make sure it is regulated correctly. There ar more incentives through LEED certification to build jet-propelled plane. discolour building in healthcare facilities is rapidly suppuration in both popularity and importance.There are some businesses that are taking advantage of this lurch, while at the same duration supporting(a) more change. Introduction commonalty building in healthcare facilities is a significant spring up to maki ng the environment healthy. Green building refers to using a process that is eco friendly throughout a buildings life cycle. This begins from sitting to design, then construction, summons, maintenance, renovation, and in timetu totallyy demolition. Green buildings are designed to reduce the impact on the environment and human health by using resources expeditiously, reducing waste and pollution, and improving employee productivity.The main economical issue with hospitals is that they are not very environmentally friendly. With new technology there are some different ways to make a hospital environmentally friendly. It has been estimated that 30 percent of the health sectors energy use could be reduced by switching to renewable and more energy efficient sources at no cost to quality of care. (EPA) The Energy Star program has free energy audits for health care facilities as nearly as energy evaluation tools and information on how to purchase more energy efficient products.It als o provides information on how to make your zeal more efficient through aboveboard steps like calibrating thermostats, turning off machines when not in use, and periodically checking for leaks in the hot water system. I. Improving Energy Efficiency Energy use in healthcare facilities is higher than nearly all other building eccentrics. With rising energy cost and climate change concerns energy efficiency is financially prudent and increasingly expected. Efficiency can be gained from integrated design practices, including systems to control heat gain, and increase the efficiency of heating, ventilation system, and air conditioning systems. Eco-Building Products) A few reasons why energy efficiency is important are it increases energy efficiency and reduces climate impact. It also demonstrates environmental awareness, and improves patient and stave comfort with a green indoor(a) environment. As soundly as improves facilities boilers suit operational efficiency and reduces operati onal costs. Less than $2. 50 12% $2. 51 to $3. 00 17% $3. 01 to $4. 00 28% $4. 01 to $5. 00 21% $5. 01 to $6. 00 11% $6. 01 to $7. 00 5% $7. 01 to $8. 00 3% More than $8. 00 3%New developments are made everyday in the field of engineering that are meant to save energy and protect the environment. This is a very important time to be conscious of energy consumption, due to globose warming. Naturally there will be experts constantly creating new technologies in this field, but another big question is whether there should be rules and regulations that force people to create or use green-engineered products. (History of the Refinements) While green building construction may appear costly for consumers, new developments in the engineering field are providing increasingly cost-effective solutions. Simple, Smart, Sustaining Solutions) Even though green engineering is coming to the forefront of society now, it has been most and developing for many years. Table I Energy Costs Source Slotte n Annual Energy Costs Per Square Foot (estimated) A. Solar Energy Figure 1 Microsoft Solar energy is most unimpeachably the largeest known form of energy conservation. Solar panels can decrease the energy consumption of a health facility drastically by producing their own energy from the temperateness. In some cases, hospitals can even receive back excess energy to thepower grid. Solar panels gather and directly convert the sunlights energy into electricity.During the daylight hours, the photovoltaic cells which are arranged on a grid physical body on the solar panels surface collect the sunlight and turn it into electricity, the charger controller regulates the amount of energy sent to the batteries to avoid being oercharged. (Simple, Smart, Sustaining Solutions) Batteries store the energy to be used at night or when there is a blackout. However, solar power is only ideal for certain regions. While some areas exit lots of direct sunlight every day, like Arizona, others get less sunlight or are often cloudy, like Alaska.This technology has been around for quite a long time, but it is still ontogenesis in popularity, as hygienic as quality. An unusual and high-priced technology ten years agone is now a cheaper, more common energy alternative. (History of the Refinements) While most of these green engineering techniques give back to the environment by decreasing the amount of energy usage, some techniques can serve up the topical anaesthetic habitat more directly. Another way to reign the sunlight is by using solar caloric energy. This is commonly used for heating and providing hot water. The other way to harness solar energy is though passive solar.Passive solar is known as direct gain and uses specific materials that can store the suns energy for future use. Although solar energy has its disadvantages, these will be out weighed by its advantages. about of the solar advantages are solar energy is a renewable energy source, solar energy is no c ost after the initial install, solar cells do not require much maintenance, they produce no noise unlike any other energy sources, solar panels are very reliable, and solar energy is clean it does not produce any pollution. B. Green Roofs Green roofs or healing gardens are fitting more popular and effective.A green roof is one with a layer ofsoil andvegetation growing on top of it. Having green roofs benefits the health facility as well as the patients recovery and the habitat in many ways. This helps the environment,in that it provides a habitat for wildlife that was likely there forwards the building was built. Thewater outpouring from the top of a greenroof also drains cleaner than it was before it hit the roof. With green roofs water is stored by the substrate and then taken up by the plants and then released back into the nimbus though evaporation.In the summer green roofs can retain 70-90% of the precipitation that falls on them. (Going Green in Americas Hospitals) In the w inter they retain between 25-40%. (Green Building Services) Green roofs also reduce the amount of stormwater runoff and also delay the time at which run off occurs. This results in less stress on the sewer system during a strom. Greenroofs alsobenefit thebuilding, in that they areagreat insulation, folding out the hot sun in the summer, or keeping the heatfromleaving the building in thewinter. (Green Building Services) C. Water EfficiencyFigure 3 Slotten Figure 2 Slotten Water is an increasingly visible and expensive resource. Process water used to operate building systems including (figure 4) boilers/chillers, (figure 3) cooling towers, and sterilizers comprise about 75 percent of hospital water use. (Green Building Elements) Reducing water use can lower operational costs and should be part of an integrative design process for construction. Another way to improve water efficiency would be to install flow control fixtures on all faucets. The average faucet puts out v gallons of wa ter per minute.After installing flow control fixtures this would result in a water savings of 88 gallons per day, or 32,000 gallons of heated water per year, which would save $280 annually per sink. (History of the Refinements) You could also install higher consumption toilets and urinals with extremist low flush toilets and urinals, which use 1. 6 gallons per flush. (Massachusetts Water Resources Authority) Some reasons why processing water efficiently is important are it reduces environmental impact, saves money and lowers the impact on drinking water sources and water ways receiving waste water.D. Lighting Efficiency People intuitively prefer natural light to artificial light. daytime and optimized artificial lighting can benefit hospital employees, patients and visitors. With rising energy costs and climate change concerns, using energy efficiency is financially important and expected. (calcium Energy Commission) In addition, evidence suggests quantifiable benefits for staff r etention, patient healing, and customer satisfaction. Some reasons why lighting efficiency is important is that it improves building aesthetics and the facilities overall operational efficiency.Studies show that it can potentially reduce staff error rates, increase staff retention, and help patient recovery. (Health Facilities Management) The use of natural light is becoming very popular innew largefacilities. In figure 5 hospitalscan make believe many skylights and windows to get natural light doubtful into the national. The artificial lights in Figure 4 Slotten thebuildingcould then dim or turn off when there is a sufficient amount of natural light. There are many windows and skylights emitting natural light. to the highest degree of these windows face the north, when possible, for the least amount of direct light. Simple, Smart, Sustaining Solutions) Direct sunlight into a buildingcould lead to undesired heating of the interior. There are also small overhangs outside the vert ical windows in order to block direct sunlight as well as reflect sunlight onto the slightly angled ceiling. (Going Green in Americas Hospitals) This ceiling then directs the light further into the building. Graham Construction is currently working on sectioning offceiling lightsto put separate sensors and dimmers on them so that theyadjust to different levels of natural light. E. Materials EfficiencySelecting sustainable construction materials is an important aspect of building a green hospital. The concept of sustainable building incorporates and integrates a variety of strategies during the design, construction and operation of building projects. Green building materials offer specific benefits to the building owner and its occupants. * Reduced maintenance/replacement costs over the life of the building. * Energy conservation. * Improved occupant health and productivity. * Lower costs associated with changing space configurations. * Greater design flexibility. Figure 5 Microsoft Building and construction activities world(a) consume 3 billion tons of raw materials each year. (CalRecycle) Using green building materials and products promotes conservation of dwindling nonrenewable resources internationally. Integrating green building materials into building projects can help reduce the environmental impact associated with the extraction, transport, processing, fabrication, installation, reuse, recycling, and disposal of these building industry source materials. (CalRecycle) Green building materials are composed of renewable, earlier than nonrenewable resources.Green materials are environmentally responsible because impacts are considered over the life of the product. Depending upon project specific goals, an appraisal of green materials may involve an evaluation of materials. (Simple, Smart, Sustaining Solutions) Resource efficiency can be accomplished by using materials that are of recycled content, natural, plentiful, renewable, resource efficient manufactu ring process, locally operable, salvaged, refurbished, reusable, and durable. (EPA) Table II Top 10 Energy Saving Design Strategies 8% Commissioning of building energy systems 34% Integration of low-energy strategies into building design 32% Day lighting 24% Load-reduction strategies 24% Low-energy design consulting services 21% Energy model programs 19% Use of LEED certifications 17% Spectrally selective glazing 7% Renewable energy sources 5% Use of EPAs Target Finder to assess the energy performance of the construction process Source Slotten F. Heating and modify One technique that is still developing is the conservation of cleanhot or cold air.The California Academy of Sciences building has vents that open on the domes to let out hot air as well as motorized windows to let in cool air. (Green Building Services) There is a constant difference between keeping a constant temperature while using the least amount of energy Figure 6 Slotten and keeping the air fresh. Most home hea ting and air conditioning (figure 7) systems advertise providing undefiled temperature control as well as filtering mold, moisture, dust, and pollen. There is not yet technology that can live up to the same standards while using much less energy.Another way to improve heating and cooling of a hospital would be to incorporate refrigeration and air conditioning units. By incorporating these units into a cooling loop, the facility can reduce its amount of water consumption by 3 million gallons per year, which would save over $20,000 in annual water and sewer costs. (Massachusetts Water Resources Authority) II. Environmental Benefits of Building Green The environmental benefits include conservation of natural resources, waste reduction, improvement of air and water quality, and protection of the ecosystem. According to the Environmental tribute Agency (EPA), U.S. buildings are responsible for 39% of total energy use, 12% of total water consumption, 68% of total electricity consumpti on and 38% of carbon dioxide emissions. (Going Green in Americas Hospitals) A. Emission Reduction Figure 7 Slotten Pollutants released by fossil fuels contribute to global climate change, cause air quality issues such(prenominal) as acid rain and smog, and pose risks to human health. Green building techniques like solar powering, daylight, and universe transport increase energy efficiency and reduce harmful emissions. Every Alegent Health hospital in Omaha and Council Bluffs has diesel-powered generators.Diesel fuel can be very harmful to your system when emitted into the air. Diesel exhaust (figure 8) has been found to break off many toxic air contaminants. Exposure to diesel exhaust can cause short-term symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, nausea, coughing, tightness of the chest, and irritation of the eyes. Although these generators rarely run they need to be tested weekly to construe they are in proper working condition. Luckily there are now certain filters for this type of emission, yet many health facilities have not adopted the idea. B. Waste Reduction Figure 8 Slotten U. S. ospitals generate approximately 6,600 tons of waste daily and 85 percent of this is non hazardous waste such as cardboard, food, glass, paper, and plastics that can be recycled. (Simple, Smart, Sustaining Solutions) Hazardous waste disposal is also a major(ip) riddle in U. S. hospitals. Hazardous waste from hospitals must undergo at least four treatment processes before it arrives at the disposal site. A huge portion of solid waste in the United States is from construction and demolition. (Simple, Smart, Sustaining Solutions) Building deconstruction is the dismantlement of a building with intention of salvaging and recycling materials. Going Green in Americas Hospitals) This can be used as an alternative to full-scale demolition, which results in a decrease of waste reduction. Several construction sites now have different dumpsters designated for specific materials this was it is easier to recycle the unused materials and all bit materials such as metals, plastic, wood, and normal trash. Green construction can be implemented through resource of building materials as well. Seeking quickly renewable resources to build with decreases the amount ofpolluting manufacturing and slows the depletion of non-renewable resources.It is also environmentally, economically, and energy efficient to use materials that are close to the building site, decreasing the amount of oil use as well as air pollution. It would actually be very green, not to mention economically beneficial, to renovate an real building rather than build a whole new one. This would preventthe production of all new materials and save the ecosystem that the building would be destroying. C. Indoor Air Quality Indoor air quality is very important. People in industrialized nations spend about 90%of their time indoors. EPA) The bad thing is that most modern buildings can contain substances that are po tentially hazardous to out health. These range form dust, to major irritants like chemical vapor off-gassing. (Healthy Air) Indoor air quality can be 10 quantify worse than outdoor air on smoggy days in big cities. (EPA) Many chemicals and quicksilver(a) Organic Compounds (VOCs) found as contaminants in buildins are known to cause adverse effects on human health. (Simple, Smart, Sustaining Solutions) Though molds can cause allergic reactions, they can also cause chronic ailment in humans.This affects not only the patients in a hospital but the employees. There is also a illness called sick Building syndrome, which is linked to poor indoor air quality and has even mystify an issue where lawsuits have been ensued. (Healthy Air) For over a decade product manufacturers in the building industry have been introducing products that reduce formaldehyde, VOCs and other potential harmful chemicals. There is a wide range of products available that replace existing adhesives, flooring, pain ts and other finishes that are much healthier.Indoor air quality can be improved by using different types of materials that are non-toxic. These are materials that emit few or no carcinogens, or irritants. Fresh air is also a critical component to optimal health. Ventilation provides control over ventilation rates and helps prevent mold. III. Social Benefits A. Improved Health Studies have shown that poor indoor environmental quality from insufficient air circulation, poor lighting, varying temperatures, and toxic paints contribute to respiratory problems, headaches, and allergies.Green building emphasizes ventilation and non-toxic materials that create healthier and more comfortable living environments. B. Healthier Lifestyle Figure 9 Slotten A key element of sustainable design is the preservation of natural environments, which afford a variety of enjoyment and exercise opportunities. (Bloomington) Green buildings also seek to facilitate alternatives to driving, such as bicycling and public transport, which eases local traffic while encouraging personal health and fitness.Having bicycle racks outside of health facilities, as well as and other building, will benefit from LEED credits among many others. This will encourage more employees and occupants to movement bicycles to and from the hospital. IV. LEED Certification A. What Does LEED Stand For LEED stands for leadership in energy and environmental design. LEED measures sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, locations and linkages, awareness and education, innovation and design, and regional priority. (U.S. Green Building Council) There are currentlymany forms of accreditationexistent today that encourage green construction, andthat is what most of them do they encourage green construction,as debate to mandatingit. The largest one of these is the LEED certification. B. History of LEED Figure 10 Microsoft After the first five years of LEED being launched, more than 2,700 buildings and projects registered for certification. (LEED Certification) 400 buildings have completed certification. This process usually takes 3+ years from the time of registration. LEED Certification) The number of certifications that are completed is expected to rise quickly as more projects complete construction. C. How to Become LEED Certified LEED points are awarded on a one hundred point scales to reflect their environmental impacts. Buildings seeking LEED rating are subject to the cost of the certification process. Projects must be registered with the US Green Building Council. This costs $450 for members. (U. S. Green Building Council) Many buildings today are striving to gain one of the fewcategories of LEED Certification.Seventy percent of new LEED Certified buildings fall under the new construction or major renovations category. A LEED certification is astray respected, creating anencouragement and acceleration ofthe adoption o f green building techniques. Federal and state public buildings encourage LEED projects. D. LEED authentication The credentials of a LEED Certification for a new building are based off of 6 categories sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, and innovation and design process. LEED is even usedas a standard in mandatory ordinances.Boston was the first major city to mandate the use of green engineering in buildings. Starting in early 2007, any new building with over 50,000 firm feet and any existing building over 100,000 square feet that is being renovated must obtain,at least, the minimum LEED Certification. (U. S. Green Building Council) Although the LEED Certification series backed by the US Green Building Council is by utmost the most recognized and used form of accreditation, there are others. Labs21 is an accreditation that is specifically for labs and high performance facilities. It is sponsored by the U. S.Environmental Protection Agency and the U. S. Department of Energy. (U. S. Department of Energy) Energy Star is another program sponsored by these 2 government agencies, although Energy Star is more involved with advertising energy efficient products and practices. Although they vary in specific tasks, all of these organizations share the same challenging goal of making technologies more energy efficient and eco-friendly while still being cost efficient. E. LEED Levels of Certification With each variety of certification, there come different levels Certified, Silver, Gold, and Platinum. LEED Certification) Any of the levels of certification would gain the accredited building acknowledgment as well as the frank environmental and economic benefits. LEED is a third-party certification program andthe nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings. (U. S. Green Building Council) F. Who Uses LEED The people that use LEE D are professionals that include architects, interior designers, engineers, construction managers, and federal agencies. Conclusion Green building has already proved to besuccessful in many large buildings.Green building in healthcare facilities is rapidly growing in both popularity and importance. There are many businesses that are taking advantage of this change, while at the same time encouraging more change. There are all sorts of companies selling green products, taking part in environmental activities, and encouraging in every way possible for consumers to go green. There is no doubt that a change must come quickly to halt a disaster that is condemning our planet. Peoplemay have to alter their lifestyles in order to reverse the damage that has been done, and putting it off until tomorrow is not an option.In addition to saving the environment, the growing intelligence of green engineering and building construction will help consumers save money by reducing their energy consumpt ion. As soon as new technologies are created, there is a constant evolution of that technology until it is perfected, making it affordable and user friendly. If people harness these advances as they unfold and are proven sustainable, then they will be taking the road that leads back to a healthy prosperous earth as well as money in their wallet.