Friday, June 7, 2019

Mediterranean Woodlands Ecosystem Essay Example for Free

Mediterranean Woodlands Ecosystem EssayAn ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, they groundwork come in any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces. Climate The Mediterranean experiences hot, dry summers, with temperatures usually between 20 and 25C, but they can reach well in excess of 30C. Winters are mild, with temperatures falling to around 10C. There is moderate rainfall, of around 800mm, which falls mainly in the winter Vegetation The Mediterranean hillsides were once covered in dense deciduous and coniferous forests. In Europe this meant that trees such as the oak flourished, whilst in California giant redwood trees grew up.Most of these have been cleared, especially in Europe, however some Where the forests have been removed a dense scrubland has replaced them. The shrub phytology has adapted to cope with the dry, hot summers by having waxy leaves that prevent water system loss through transpiration. They also have long roots to reach water deep below the surface. Many of the trees are resistant to fire, as these are a common feature of the Mediterranean area. Clearance Humans have ahd a huge impact on Mediterranean woodland throughout the world, but particularly in Europe. The Romans and Greeks cleared much of it for fuel wood and building materials, as well as clearing areas for farming.Agriculture the massive clearance of the Mediterranean woodlands exposed huge areas for farming, as they presumed the ground would be fertile. Unfortunately in many cases the dry summers and winter rains proceeded to wash away the nutritious topsoil fairly quickly. This leaves relatively infertile land on which to farm. A very go od interpreter where this occurred was in Southern Italy. Grazing animals also caused great damage to the woodlands, and continue to also affect the newer scrubland that has developed. Fires Forest fires are very common in the Mediterranean area, and this has helped to destroy much of the original woodland. The shrubs and small trees that have replaced them often are resistant to fire.ReferenceChapin et al. (2002), p. 380 Schulze et al. (2005) p. 400Hatcher, Bruce Gordon (1990). Coral reef primary productivity. A hierarchy of pattern and process. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5 (5) 149155. doi10.1016/0169-5347(90)90221-X. Odum, EP (1971) Fundamentals of ecology, third edition, Saunders New York Schulze et al. (2005), p.400Tansley (1934) Molles (1999), p. 482 Chapin et al. (2002), p. 380 Schulze et al. (2005) p. 400 Gurevitch et al. (2006), p. 522 Smith Smith 2012, p. G-5 Willis (1997), p.269 Chapin et al. (2002), p. 5 Krebs (2009). p. 572

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