Monday, September 9, 2019

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Research Paper

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning - Research Paper Example Although the disorder is present in both sexes, it is most common in males. ADHD is a disorder where the child has problems with being highly impulsive, exhibiting over-activity or inattentiveness, or some combination of these three aspects (PubMed Health). ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in children and the most well studied (Myayes, Bagwell and Erkulwater 1). Children with ADHD tend to have a much higher level of activity than normal children and often act impulsively. The principle of ADHD is heavily debated, as all children show some degree of this behavior, especially in early age (Myayes, Bagwell and Erkulwater 15-16). ADHD is a complex disorder and the exact symptoms that children show can differ significantly from one another (Lougy and Rosenthal 22). This case study considers Alice, a ten-year-old girl who has ADHD and experiences considerable learning difficulties and problems establishing friendships as the result of this disorder. Literature Review Diagnosis of ADHD ADHD has a range of symptoms, which are generally grouped into three categories. These are impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and lack of attention. There are nine diagnostic symptoms for inattentiveness, five for hyperactivity and three for impulsivity. ADHD is a difficult disorder to diagnose, as many of the behaviors can be associated with other conditions as well as normal behaviors that occur as part of childhood. The complexity of the symptoms means that there are many children who are incorrectly diagnosed with ADHD, and others who have ADHD but have not been diagnosed. One of the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD is that the symptoms are only evident at some points in time, most commonly during school hours. A child with ADHD generally does not show the symptoms during a physician’s visit, and so other people must be the source of this information (Myayes, Bagwell and Erkulwater 5). In fact, children are often first diagnosed with ADHD when they enter school because many of the behaviors associated with ADHD do not appear to be abnormal without the increased demands on attention, sitting still and following a direction that is present in the school environment (Lougy and Rosenthal 22). In addition, ADHD often co-occurs with other disorders, and some of the behavioral symptoms that are part of ADHD also occur as part of other disorders (Myayes, Bagwell and Erkulwater 20).To assist in diagnosis; the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the following guidelines. That child has at least six symptoms from either impulsivity and hyperactivity, or six from the attention category, some of which began prior to seven years of age.

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