Tuesday, June 18, 2019

(Intro Psychology) Phobias and Addictions (as related to classical and Essay

(Intro Psychology) Phobias and dependences (as related to classical and operant conditioning) - Essay ExampleBoth phobic disorder and addiction are contrasting psychological disorders. While phobia causes fear due to certain substance, addiction increases dependency of certain substance. In short, phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties which cultivation theorists bear account for. Phobias and addictions can be better analyzed with respect to classical and operant conditioning in psychology. The theory of operant conditioning was formulated by B.F. Skinner in 1930. It is ground upon the idea that training is a function of change in overt way. Changes in behavior are the result of an individuals response to events (stimuli) that occur in the surround (Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner), n. d). On the other hand the theory of classical conditioning was put forward by Pavlov which states that certain responses can be developed with the jockstrap of certain stimulus . This paper analyses phobias in relation to theory of classical conditioning and addictions in relation to operant conditioning. Phobias and theory of classical conditioning Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i.e., making a new association between events in the environment. There are two forms of associative learning classical conditioning and operant conditioning(Classical conditioning, 2008). Pavlov explained his theory of classical conditioning with the help of a dogs response to meat. ... However, the dogs peach filled with saliva immediately after hearing the bell. Pavlov argued that the stimulus (Sound of Bell) produced a response (the saliva). In other words, he proved that certain behaviors can be conditioned with the help of certain stimuli. Phobias can be explained with the help of classical conditioning. For example, suppose a person suffered the attack of a dog once. He can develop the phobia of feeling afraid of dogs from the n onwards. It is not necessary that all dogs whitethorn attack human. However, the person who suffered the attack of a dog may always watch dogs with fear and concerns because of his previous experience. Addictions and theory of operant conditioning Skinner used the term operant to refer to any active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences (Wagner, 2009). When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is strengthend (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond (Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner), n. d). Skinner argued that certain stimulus can reinforce positive or negative behaviors. Consider a parent tries to wake up his son early in the morning at about 4am for perusal his lessons. Initially the child may show some reluctance to wake up and study early in the morning. Also consider the child may be very much interested in having a black coffee early in the morning. If the parent provides him the black coffee after wakeful him up by 4 am for a period of one workweek continuously, the child may automatically wake up from the next week onwards asking for the coffee. Here the reward, black coffee has strengthened or reinforced the behavior of waking up and studying early in the morning. Addiction can be better understood with

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