Wednesday, April 3, 2019
An Overview of Neo Colonialism
An Overview of Neo Colonialism What is Neo-colonialism? Discuss with reference to specific examples.Neo-colonialism is the go steady of less- authentic countries by unquestionable countries through in study shopping mall. The term neo-colonialism was first utilise after introduction War II to refer to the continuing dependence of former colonies on contradictory countries, but its meaning soon broadened to apply, to a greater extent generally, to places where the creator of developed countries was handlingd to produce a colonial -like exploitation-for instance, in Latin America, where direct inter rural areaal rule had ended in the early 19th century. (halperin, n.d.)When the baron of Britain felt that her duty her duty is to extend the model of goernment and ending to other split of the humankind. Hence, she started neo-colonizing while exploited the resources of all much(prenominal) colonies. This happened principally not with the white colonies. These were usually self-governed colonies with large number of settlers. The main conundrum makers or rebellions were only brown colonies which were dealt with a divide and rule form _or_ system of government together with a string of home treaties with sociable splinter groups who had their unsung kindle involved to tally much from continued British tower like the Indian maharajas.Examples of neo-colonialism hand been studied in to a greater extent(prenominal) or less corners of the world since the end of the Second orbit War.In fact, its difficult to find a place that scholars do not claim has been subject to ethnic imperialism of any(prenominal) sort since 1945. From Egypt to Belize to India to Britain to the United States of Americaall of these countries get down observed some sort of curve over their culture from another boorish (Reid 57 Everitt 42 Altbach 902 barrel maker and Cooper 61). This is hardly a surprise after all, globalisation is no secret. pagan imperialism and hege mony, however, be not theorys that fanny be described so simply as globalization. Neo-colonialism, the modern colonialism, has emerged as an influential force used by powerful countries for a variety of reasons, it is continually shaping not only individual cultures, but the global culture.There be cardinal terms that most completely bring aside the subtleties of neo-colonialism heathenish imperialism and cultural hegemony. cultural imperialism is best summarized as the way that certain cultural products be possessed of attained a position of dominance in a foreign culture through a process of coercive imposition, usually through their ties to political or scotch power (Dunch 302). While imperialism is characteristically placed by military control, this is definitely not the carapace with cultural imperialism. Cultural imperialism also differs slightly from the idea of cultural hegemony, which is an aspect of bolshy philosophical system that calls attention to the promo tion of angiotensin converting enzyme culture over another with the butt of that the command class worldview becomes the norm. This cultural assimilation is particularly useful in that it creates a situation ripe with potential for the economic benefit of the ruling class. By persuading the infantryman group that the profits from gybement come forthweigh the losings of not working together, the ruling culture is able to maintain their professional status (Schultz 275). It is the intertwining and collective definition of these related concepts -cultural imperialism and cultural hegemony that paint the final picture of neo-colonialism and cross-cultural promotion in the interests of one province, often at the expense of another.It exists the power exercising control is often the State which formerly ruled the territory in question, but this is not necessarily so. For example, in the case of South Vietnam the former imperial power was France, but neo-colonial control of the S tate has now gone to the United States. It is possible that neo-colonial control may be exercised by a consortium of financial interests which are not specifically identifiable with any particular State. The control of the Congo by great international financial concerns is a case in point.The means by which a country may impose an unequal cultural family on another are spacious ranging, but economics is by far the most common tool used in neo-colonialism (Petra 139). By providing monetary support and forming economic partnerships, the financial institutions, governments, and particularly the transnational corporations of the colonizing power ingratiate themselves to their subjects and integrate them into their own capitalist system. There are two particular concepts that deeper explore this culturally hegemonic relationship. maven is another Marxist surmise, complimentary to cultural hegemony, which is understood as dependence theory. This theory declares that by the penetrat ion of international corporations, economic sanctions, partnerships, and the like, developed countries intentionally foster and follow up a culture within developing countries that is economically dependent on their own. Dependency theory contends that the ricketyer nation is advertize impoverished to the benefit of the stronger country due to the subsequent capitalist use of the weaker countrys resources and labour. This radiation diagram continues because of the strong hegemony of the colonizing power. A concept that is similar, yet more functionalist than dependency theory is the world systems theory. This theory says that the world is divided into segments of a powerful midpoint, a moderate semi-periphery, and weak periphery nations. The three categories of nations each engage in neo-colonialism with varying degrees of achievement on the other two kinds of nations. Essentially, world systems theory explains how the force can dominate and take control of the resources and labour supplied by the periphery for a profit. Just as in dependency theory, the loading benefits because of these mechanics. Dissimilar to dependency theory, however, the peripherys marginal benefits are acknowledged since they are provided with some economic gain. World systems theory can definitely be extended to the broader methods of neo-colonialism if we think of the cultures of the meat and periphery in the same way we would otherwise think of their economies.In the present era, we can also look to two key case studies of neo-colonialism Sino-African relations and The United States of America as an economic power.To this day, more than one million Chinese are African residents, and Chinese investment in Africa exceeds 40 billion dollars. They have string out their money and culture passim the continent, and are now trading in excess of 166 billion dollars per family with Africa securing 50 billion in minerals. Africa receives goods in return, and most of these goods supp ort further resource extraction and industrial development. While this relationship was once seen as quite exploitative, views are changing as China fosters goodwill in these nations with more equitable agreements (Africa and China). Similar Chinese examples of economic neo-colonialism have been determine all over the world, from Canada to Ecuador (Kay Scheneyer and Perez). The United States of America is another core country that is heavily invested in neo-colonial pursuits. One of the most astute concepts that illustrates the worldwide die hard of American culture by mostly economic means is called Coca-Colonization. This concept calls attention to Coca-Colas global pervasiveness as a symbol for the Americanization of nearly every corner of the earth (Kuisel 98). Through huge multinational corporations such(prenominal) as Coca-Cola, American values and culture have been strongly infused all over the world. As one of the most influential countries in the world, there are certain ly umpteen other tools that America uses to engage in neo-colonialism, (including many of the ones already mentioned), but economics and multi-national corporations are by far the most commonly referenced (Petras 2070).These historical examples, and others like them, provide a secure basis for examining the exact motivations that nations might have for their neo-colonial pursuits.This is because they show how core countries have benefitted from the cultural assimilation of the periphery, and identifying these benefits then exposes their motivations. Indeed, there are inherent economic benefits for powerful nations to realize as a result of their cultural imperialism core countries can expand their business to the nations theyve culturally assimilated and also make use of the low-cost resources and labour that they are able to obtain from the periphery. Often condemnations, the subordinate culture becomes dependent (as described by dependency theory) on these foreign operations wi thin their own borders they rely on outside multinationals for jobs and goods. Because of this dependency, the core is able to set low wages and prices for raw goods and operate at a high profit. As such, these practices pay off financially for the multinational corporations and (by the extension of taxes) the governments of the colonizing power. It can be concluded that the substantial financial gain to be had as a result of neo-colonialism is definitely a prompt factor.While financial profit is one of the most straightforward shipway that a nation can benefit from neo-colonialism, there are more motivations that might cause a country to engage in these pursuits.One of these is national security. Just as in the Cold War, nations have an interest in fostering goodwill and dependence in other parts of the world creating allies and dependent states that would not go to war against them, or support them in the event of the war. Another motivating factor is to call for resources. As the worlds population multiplies, valuable resources are being stretched thin. Growing countries such as China and India need to secure access to fuel and intellectual nourishment to provide for their citizens, and neo-colonialism has been shown to allow them the influence to negotiate access to these resources. Diplomatic power also seems to be a reason to engage in neo-colonialism countries that have similar cultures are likely to agree and vote identically on international issues. Even if they dont agree, countries that are dependent on another nation may feel obligated to act in the wishes of their neo-colonizer, as a derogatively titled puppet state.The new face of colonialism has shown itself in a wide variety of places around the world, and we can see that countries have benefited in discordant ways exposing their motivations.It is also important to look at future implications should these activities continue. Cultural homogenization (most commonly referred to as globalizat ion) is perhaps the most powerful force affecting the global landscape today. For instance, estimates include a ninety percent reduction in the number of languages spoken around the world by the year 2100 while others clearly show that the number of speakers will be highly concentrated in a handful of languages by this time (Ryan Graddol 27). Global trends such as these are directly related to the practice of neo-colonialism. While the future prevalence of some languages is due to rising populations, it is no surprise that the languages at the top of these lists also have homelands that are cognize for engaging in neo-colonialism in the past and present. So, while the term globalization seems to indicate that the result is a diverse global culture, the reality is that this current homogenization of ethos is more composed of the cultures that are most aggressive in neo-colonial pursuits. The core nations culturally imperialistic practices reduce the influence of other cultures and sustain the influence of their own, indeed leading to a global culture that is more comprised of the core than the periphery.If neo-colonialism continues to be practiced, then the current situation of nations can be expected to expand.Many will be quick to point out that the periphery nations benefit in the same way as the core that they would be a lot worse off should they limit their relationship with the core, and that their loss of culture is not all that significant (Bowen 179). Still more point out that these benefits are marginal, and require that the periphery countries submit to the exploitive objectives of the core pointing primarily to the issue of human rights, they contend that the wages accredited and benefits incurred (cultural or otherwise) are not nearly enough to compensate for the capitulated resources, labour, familiarity and culture especially when considering the relative profits of the core (Koshy 26). Most agree that relatively small cultures will eventua lly be washed out by the cultures of the most powerful nations that human rights issues must continue to be questioned. If neo-colonialism continues to perpetuate itself in this way, there is little hope that conditions will alteration for these nationsthe core will remain at the core, and the periphery and semi-periphery will clamber to flourish. This school of thought is quite large, and has given most of the terms already discussed an overwhelmingly negative connotation. However, as already mentioned in the case of Sino-African relations, the core is beginning to realize their own dependency on the periphery which is easily improving these human rights conditionsthough the general cultural assimilation remains.The modern colonialism benefits countries that spread their culture throughout the world.The tools employed by those countries to this end are varied, ranging from economics to education. As beneficiaries of the financial, military, diplomatic, and resource stability tha t comes from having nations culturally assimilated to them, there seems to be no reason for powerful core nations to cease in their neo-colonial activities. Illustrated by concepts such as dependency theory, world systems theory, and Coca-Colonization, the forces of cultural imperialism and cultural hegemony are lend to the globalized world in a way that favours the most powerful of nationsfor repair or for worse.