Tuesday, January 15, 2019
Learning and cognition paper Essay
encyclopedism as it is commonly habituate is outlined as the acquisition of knowledge, skills, behavior, preferences and understanding from experiences, whether real, induced or vicarious. Technically, however, encyclopaedism is used more broadly by the psychologists, making it almost impossible to get through it an exact definition. What can only be done is to describe it in terms of phenomena to which it can or cannot be applied. For precedent, psychologists say that learning take away not be correct or adaptive, or it does not dupe to be conscious or deliberate (Hill, 1980).This process is not express mail to humans. Animals, and even machines may as well undergo this process, although all(prenominal) exclusives learning processes follow different learning curves. The role of behavior in an undivideds learning process is best explained by Banduras Social Learning Theory. This theory posits that individuals learn by observing, imitating and modeling early(a) individual s skills, behaviors and attitudes, in relation to the outcomes of such skills, behaviors and attitudes.The information gathered from these behaviors, skills and attitudes then, are interpreted, consciously or unconsciously to determine whether such behaviors, skills and attitudes would be serve rough future beneficial purpose (Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2009). In other words, people use these behaviors and its consequences as guide for their subsequent behaviors. 2. What are the two different types of learning? The two types of learning usually examined by psychologists are Greco-Roman condition and operant conditioning.Classical conditioning is the type of learning wherein a reflex(a) response is evoked by a arousal ( foreplay B) which is different from the stimulus (stimulus A) that originally evoked such reflexive response (Learning and Conditioning, 2009). For example, a individual had very fond memories of his/her tenth natal day which was held at restaurant A. When asked what his/ darling restaurant is, that person would immediately blurt out restaurant A.In this example, the positive feeling brought about by the memories of the persons 10th birthday had been transferred, or rather, had been extended to the place where the persons birthday was held. The other type of learning is called Operant conditioning. This is the type of learning wherein punishment causes the weakening or non-reinforcement of a non-reflexive behavior, and reinforcement strengthens a non-reflexive behavior. Unlike classical conditioning, in operant conditioning, an individual has more control.Meaning, presentation of a stimulus does not necessarily mean that a certain reaction result be evoked. In order to receive a certain reinforcement, an individual must behave in certain manner (Learning and Conditioning, 2009). One example of operant conditioning involves a professors attempt to improve his students attendance. To do this, he made a rule that students who obtain a certain number of absences will have an automatic one-point deduction in their final grades. Although he said nothing about any reenforcement for full attendance, the threat of lower grades forced the students to limit their absences.3. What is the relationship surrounded by learning and condition? Provide a specific example. Jean Piagets theory of cognition lays out 4 stages of cognition that is experienced by children as they progress. From the sensorimotor period when the childs cognitive governance is still limited to his/her motor reflexes, the cognitive system will fall apart to preoperational thought wherein a child acquires representational skills especially in kind imagery and language. The third stage is the concrete operations wherein the child acquires an magnate to take another persons point of view.Lastly, although, not everyone reaches this stage, a child becomes capable of logical and abstract thinking (Sandwell, 1995). Learning as defined earlier refers to th e acquisition of knowledge, skills and behavior based on experience. mention that the definition involves the world acquisition. Naturally, for an individual who learns and therefore undergo the process of acquisition, he/she should have the capacity to acquire. This is where cognition comes in. Assuming that Piagets theory is indubitable, each individual must necessarily be in one of the quaternion stages.It is the individuals ability or capacity as set forth in each of the four stages that limits the knowledge, skills or behavior that such individual can acquire or learn. An individual who is still in train one of Piagets cognitive development cannot be expected to rationality out with a person who has already attained a doctorate degree since his/her cognition is limited to motor skills. Such individual cannot also be expected to understand or learn Algebra because such requires logic and therefore the skills attained in Piagets fourth stage.References Hill, W.(1980). Learn ing A survey of psychological interpretations. Taylor and Francis USA. Learning and Conditioning. (2009). Alleydog. Retrieved 26 April 2009 from http//www. alleydog. com/101notes/conditioning. html. Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2009). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning-Theories. com. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from http//www. learning-theories. com/social-learning-theory-bandura. html Sandwell, J. (1995). Piagets stage theory of development. Retrieved 26 April 2009 from http//penta. ufrgs. br/edu/telelab/3/piaget%27s. htm.